Aircraft Configuration Files


Contents
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Overview

The aircraft configuration file (aircraft.cfg) represents the highest level of organization within an aircraft container. Each aircraft has its own configuration file located in its container (aircraft folder). For example, the Mooney Bravo aircraft.cfg can be found at:

SimObjects\Airplanes\Mooney_Bravo\aircraft.cfg

The aircraft.cfg file specifies the versions of the aircraft included in the aircraft container, as well as the attributes (name, color, sound, panels, gauges, and so on) for each aircraft and where to find the files that define those attributes. Within the aircraft.cfg file there are a number of sections. Brackets enclosing the section name identify the various sections. In order for the simulation to make proper use of any variable, it is important that the variable be located in the correct section. While exact spelling is important, none of the terms is case-sensitive.

The SimObjects.cfg file contains entries to determine which paths to search for aircraft and other containers. For example:

...
[Entry.12]
Path=SimObjects\Airplanes
...

Additional paths can be added to this file. The paths are either relative to the root folder of the Prepar3D installation folder, or they are absolute paths -- which can also point to locations on other computers (using the "\\computer name" notation).

The SimObjects.cfg file is in the %PROGRAMDATA%\Lockheed Martin\Prepar3D v4 folder by default. Please see the Add-ons Overview article for more information.


Testing Changes to aircraft.cfg

To see the effects of a change, the aircraft must be reloaded (this is because aircraft are loaded into the memory cache from disk, so you have to flush the cache to enable your changes to take effect). This involves a couple of steps:

  1. Configure a key command to Reload User Object (which will reload your object from within the simulation). To do this go to Settings, Controls Assignments, and scroll down to the Reload User Object event.  By default, it's unassigned.  Use Change Assignment to configure a keystroke combination for this event.  Once assigned, you can use this key command to reload the aircraft within the simulation.
  2. Turn off AI Traffic. AI traffic aircraft are maintained in the cache and even if you update the aircraft you are currently piloting, if the same aircraft is being used by AI traffic, then your cache won't get updated automatically by simply reloading the plane.  So to ensure your aircraft is reloaded from disk, you must also go to the Settings Screen, choose Traffic, and set the Air Traffic Density slider all the way to the left to 0%.
  3. Now you can test changes made to an aircraft.cfg within the simulation by using the Reload User Object key command after each change, or set of changes, is made. 

Any errors made in creating or editing the aircraft.cfg file will show up, along with the following error messages, while an aircraft is being loaded. The error messages are listed in order; that is, the first error message represents an error early in the aircraft-loading process.

Error Message Description
Aircraft initialization failure.  Indicates that some essential files are missing from the aircraft container. If the files are missing, the aircraft will not usually be displayed in the Select Vehicle dialog box; as a result, this error is rare.
Failed to start up the flight model. The .air file was not loaded successfully.
This is not a Prepar3D aircraft model.  The visual model (.mdl) file for this aircraft is not compatible with Prepar3D.
Visual model could not be displayed.  An error occurred while loading the visual model (.mdl) file.

Datum Reference Point

Positions of aircraft components are given relative to the datum reference point for the aircraft, in the order: longitudinal, lateral, vertical. The convention for positions is positive equals forward, to the right, and vertically upward. Units are in feet.
The datum reference point itself is specified in the weight_and_balance section.

Sections of the Configuration File

[fltsim.n]

Each [fltsim.n] section of an aircraft configuration file represents a different version (configuration) of the aircraft, and is known as a configuration set. Configuration sets allow a single aircraft container to represent several aircraft, and allow those aircraft to share components.

If there is only one section (labeled [fltsim.0]), it is because there is only one configuration set in that aircraft container. If there is more than one configuration set (labeled [fltsim.0], [fltsim.1], [fltsim.2], and so on), each one refers to a different version of the aircraft.

For instance, there are several versions of the Mooney Bravo, all housed in the same Mooney Bravo aircraft container (folder). The various versions must vary by their title, and may also vary other items such as the panel, description, and sounds.

While these configuration sets share many components, they can each use different panels. The panel= line in the respective fltsim sections thus refer to the respective panel folder for each aircraft:  For example, panel=ifr means that this version of the C172 uses the panel files in the panel.ifr subfolder.

When creating and referencing multiple model, panel, sound, and texture directories, use the naming convention foldername for all common files between all vehicle versions and foldername.extension for files unique to each vehicle version, where the extension is a unique identifier for that configuration set (for example, .ifr). To refer to the folder from the relevant parameter in the aircraft.cfg file, just specify the extension (for example, panel=ifr).

The parameters in each configuration set can refer to the same files, to different files, or to a mix of files. While using different panels, all Cessna configurations use the same sounds, and thus the sound parameters in all the fltsim sections point to the single sound folder in the C172 folder.

Each aircraft defined by a configuration set will appear as a separate listing in the Select Vehicle dialog box. The fact that multiple aircraft share some components is hidden from the user. From a user's perspective, they are distinct aircraft (just as if all the common files were duplicated and included in three distinct aircraft containers). From a developer's perspective, the aircraft are really just different configuration sets of the same aircraft. Because they share some files, they make much more efficient use of disk space.

Within each [fltsim.n] section are parameters that define the details of that particular configuration set:

Property Description Examples
title The title of the aircraft. The version variation that is being loaded Mooney Bravo( title=Mooney Bravo )
sim Specifies which AIR (flight model) file to use. The file is located in the same folder as the aircraft configuration file. Refer to Flight Models for details on how to create an AIR file. Mooney Bravo( sim=Mooney_Bravo )

model Specifies which model folder to reference. If no entry is made, the default folder is used. Mooney Bravo( model= )
Mooney Bravo with G1000( model=g1000 )
panel Specifies which panel folder to reference. Mooney Bravo( panel= )
Mooney Bravo with G1000( panel=g1000 )
sound Specifies which sound folder to reference. Mooney Bravo( sound= )
texture Specifies which texture folder to reference. Mooney Bravo( texture= )
Mooney Bravo Retro( texture=1 )
kb_checklists Specifies which _check.txt file (located in the aircraft folder) to use on the Checklists tab of the kneeboard. Beech Baron 58( kb_checklists=Beech_Baron_58_check )
kb_reference Specifies which _ref.txt file (located in the aircraft folder) to use on the Reference tab of the kneeboard. Beech Baron 58( kb_reference=Beech_Baron_58_ref )
atc_id The tail number displayed on the exterior of the aircraft. This parameter can also be edited from the Select Vehicle dialog (if the atc_id_enable parameter is set to 1). Note that custom tail numbers burned into textures will not be modified by this. Beech Baron 58( atc_id=N058BE )
atc_airline The ATC system will use the specified airline name with this aircraft. This is dependent on ATC recognizing the name. ATC will treat this aircraft as an airliner when this is used in conjunction with atc_flight_number. Commercial Airliner( atc_airline=World Travel )
atc_flight_number The ATC system will use this number as part of the aircrafts callsign. ATC will treat this aircraft as an airliner when this is used in conjunction with atc_airline.  
ui_manufacturer This value identifies the manufacturer sub-category used to group aircraft in the Select Vehicle dialog in Prepar3D. Mooney Bravo( ui_manufacturer="Mooney" )
Beech Baron 58( ui_manufacturer="Beechcraft" )
ui_type This value identifies the type sub-category used to group aircraft in the Select Vehicle dialog in Prepar3D. Mooney Bravo( ui_type="Bravo" )
ui_variation This value identifies the variation sub-category used to group aircraft in the Select Vehicle dialog in Prepar3D. Mooney Bravo Retro( ui_variation="White, Blue" )
ui_typerole This value identifies the role of the aircraft. Mooney Bravo( ui_typerole="Single Engine Prop" )
Beech Baron 58( ui_typerole="Twin Engine Prop" )
Beech King Air 350( ui_typerole="Twin Engine TurboProp" )
ui_createdby This value is used to identify the creator of the configuration file. Mooney Bravo( ui_createdby="Lockheed Martin Corporation" )
description The aircraft description can be modified to say whatever you like about the aircraft. This information will be displayed in a description box when the aircraft is selected. (The \s is used to produce a semicolon ( ; ) punctuation mark within the description.).  
visual_damage Setting this flag to 1 enables visual damage (e.g. parts breaking off) to be seen when crashing the aircraft into the scenery. Note: visual damage will only work if it is built into the aircrafts .mdl file. Mooney Bravo( visual_damage=0 )
atc_heavy Setting this flag to 1 will result in the ATC system appending the phrase heavy to the aircrafts callsign. Mooney Bravo( atc_heavy=0 )
atc_parking_types Specifies the preferred parking for this aircraft, used by ATC. If this line is omitted, ATC will determine parking according to the type of aircraft and parking available. If multiple values are listed, preference will be given in the order in which they are listed. The valid values may be one or more of the following: RAMP, CARGO, GATE, DOCK, MIL_CARGO, MIL_COMBAT. de Havilland Dash 8-100( atc_parking_types=RAMP )
CRJ 700( atc_parking_types=GATE,RAMP )
atc_parking_codes Specifies one or more ICAO airline designations so that ATC can direct the aircraft to a gate that has also been designated specifically for that same airline, for example, "AAL" for American Airlines. Refer to the example XML for the TaxiwayParking entry in the Compiling BGL document. The codes entered in the airlineCodes entry should match the text entered here. The ICAO codes do not have to be used, and can be as short as one character, as long as the text strings match, but for clarity use of the ICAO codes is recommended.
If multiple parking codes are entered, separate them with commas.
atc_id_color Specifies, in RGB hexadecimal, the color of the tail number. The first two characters following the 0x specify the red value in hex, the second two characters the green, and the third set the blue. The final two characters are unused. Each value can be between 0 to ff hex, which is 0 to 255 decimal. Note that custom tail numbers burned into textures will not be modified by this. King Air 350( atc_id_color=0xffffffff )
prop_anim_ratio The ratio of rotor revolutions rendered to the actual revolutions in the simulator. Robinson R22( prop_anim_ratio=-1.76 )
atc_model This is the specific aircraft model that the ATC system recognizes for this type of aircraft. Robinson R22( atc_model=R22 )
dis_entity_type The DIS entity type string specific to this object. The following is an example entity type string (without quotes): "1.2.225.1.6.1.0". Each integer of the string represents properties of the entity type in the following order: Kind, Domain, Country, Category, Subcategory, Specific, and Extra. ( dis_entity_type=1.2.225.1.6.1.0 )
ExternalSecondarySimID.0
to
ExternalSecondarySimID.n
The GUID of External Secondary Sim modules that this SimObject works with. ( ExternalSecondarySimID.0={3E6B47E7-C706-4A10-BC88-6E7C199ED5A6} )
ExternalSecondarySimData.0
to
ExternalSecondarySimData.n
Optional string data you want to pass to this External Secondary Sim module. ( ExternalSimData=75,75,100 )
ExternalSecondarySimVarCount.0
to
ExternalSecondarySimVarCount.n
Optional integer defining the number of custom SimVars to set aside for this External Secondary Sim to use. These SimVars are accessed via the SimVar name "External Secondary Sim Vars Value:index", where index can run from zero to one less than the value set in this item. ( ExternalSecondarySimVarCount=35 )
ExternalSecondarySimModule.0
to
ExternalSecondarySimModule.n
Optional SimConnect module to load when loading this SimObject. ( ExternalSecondarySimModule=Modules\TestExternalSim.dll )
IsSelectableVehicle

This flag can be used to override whether or not a SimObject can be selected by the user via the Select Vehicle user interface. This flag will also be used to override whether or not the user's avatar can attach to the vehicle. This flag takes precedence over the IsSelectableVehicle value in the [General] section.

static_pitch The static pitch of the aircraft when at rest on the ground (degrees). The program uses this value to position the aircraft at startup, in slew, and at any other time when the simulation is not actively running. This value takes precedence over the static_pitch value in the [contact_points] section.
static_cg_height The static height of the aircraft when at rest on the ground (feet). The program uses this value to position the aircraft at startup, in slew, and at any other time when the simulation is not actively running. This value takes precedence over the static_cg_height value in the [contact_points] section. Orion MPCV with SLS Block 1( static_cg_height = 263.0 )

[general]

In addition to the fltsim sections, the general section contains information related to all variations of the aircraft.

Property Description Examples
atc_type This is the specific aircraft type that the ATC system recognizes for this type of aircraft. Mooney Bravo( atc_type=Mooney )
Beech Baron 58( atc_type=BARON )
atc_model This is the specific aircraft model that the ATC system recognizes for this type of aircraft. Mooney Bravo( atc_model=M20T )
editable Unused.  
performance The performance description for the aircraft can be edited. The \t is a tab character, and the \n is a new-line character. As the flight model for all variations is the same, the performance of each variation should also be identical. Mooney Bravo( performance="Maximum Speed\t\n220 kts 253 mph\t407 kmh\n\nCruise Speed\t\n195 kts 224 mph \t361 kmh\n\nEngine\t\nTextron Lycoming TIO-540-AF1B 270 hp\n\nPropeller\t\nThree-bladed McCauley constant speed\n\nMaximum Range\t\n1,050 nm 1,204 sm \t1,945 km\n\nService Ceiling\t\n25,000 ft 7,620 m\n\nFuel Capacity\t\n89 U.S. gal 337 L \n\nEmpty Weight\t\n2,189 lb \t 993 kg\n\nMaximum Gross Weight\t\n3,368 lb \t 1,528 kg\n\nUseful Load\t\n1,179 lb \t 535 kg\n\nLength\t\n26.75 ft\t 8.15 m\n\nWingspan\t\n36 ft\t 11 m\n\nHeight\t\n8.33 ft\t 2.5 m\n\nSeating\t\nUp to 4" )
category For aircraft, one of airplane or helicopter. Maule M7 260C( category = Airplane )
Robinson R22( category = Helicopter )
IsSelectableVehicle

This flag can be used to override whether or not a SimObject can be selected by the user via the Select Vehicle user interface. This flag will also be used to override whether or not the user's avatar can attach to the vehicle.


By default, vehicles are considered user selectable if the following conditions are true:

  • The object's Category is present in the User Objects list of the Prepar3D.cfg.
  • The object has valid model, panel, and texture directories with valid configuration files respectively.
If this configuration entry is present, the default behavior will be overridden.

Tracker Sample( IsSelectableVehicle=True )
RecordAndPlaybackDefinitionGuid Used to specify a custom RecordAndPlayback.xml file. See the Simulation Recording and Playback article.
DISArticulatedPartDefinitionGuid Used to specify a custom DISArticulatedParts.xml file. See the Custom Articulated Parts XML File section of the DIS article.
CigiArticulatedPartDefinitionGuid Used to specify a custom CigiArticulatedParts.xml file. See the Custom Articulated Parts XML File section if the CIGI article.

[pitot_static]

The vertical_speed_time_constant parameter can be used to tune the lag of the Vertical Speed Indicator for the aircraft:

Property Description Examples
vertical_speed_time_constant Increases or decreases the lag of the vertical speed indicator. Increasing will cause a more instantaneous reaction in the VSI. Beech Baron 58( vertical_speed_time_constant = 1.0 )
pitot_heat Scale of heat effectiveness, or 0 if not available. Mooney Bravo( pitot_heat = 1.0 )

[weight_and_balance]

The weight and center of gravity of the aircraft can be affected through the following parameters.

Note
In the stock aircraft, the station_load.0, 1, etc. parameters are enclosed in quotation marks. These are used by internal language translation tools.
Moments of Inertia

A moment of inertia (MOI) defines the mass distribution about an axis of an aircraft. A moment of inertia for a particular axis is increased as mass is increased and/or as the given mass is distributed farther from the axis. This is largely what determines the inertial characteristics of the aircraft.

The following weight and balance parameters define the MOIs of the empty aircraft, so the values should not reflect fuel, passengers or baggage. The simulation engine determines the total MOIs with these additional, and variable, influences. The units are slugs per foot squared. Omission of a parameter will result in the use of a default value set in the .air file, if one exists.

These values can be estimated with the following formula:

Where:

Pitch Roll Yaw
D =  Length (feet) Wingspan (feet)   0.5* (Length+Wingspan)
K = 810 1870 770

This formula yields only rough estimates. Actual values vary based on aircraft material, installed equipment, and number of engines and their positions.

Property Description Examples
max_gross_weight Maximum design gross weight of the aircraft. Beech Baron 58( max_gross_weight = 5524 )
empty_weight Total weight (in pounds) of the aircraft minus usable fuel, passengers, and cargo. If not specified, the value previously set in the .air file will be used. Beech Baron 58( empty_weight = 3911 )
reference_datum_position Offset (in feet) of the aircraft's reference datum from the standard center point, which is on the centerline chord aft of the leading edge. By adjusting this position, actual aircraft loading data can be used directly according to the aircraft's manufacturer. If not specified, the default is 0,0,0. Beech Baron 58( reference_datum_position = 6.96, 0, 0 )
empty_weight_cg_position Offset (in feet) of the center of gravity of the basic empty aircraft (no fuel, passengers, or baggage) from the datum reference point . Beech Baron 58( empty_weight_CG_position = -6.06, 0, 0 )
max_number_of_stations Specifies the maximum number of stations (specific locations) for the aircraft when it is loaded. This does allow an unlimited number of stations to be specified, but note that an excessively large number here results in a longer load time for the aircraft when selected, although there is no effect on real-time performance. Mooney Bravo( max_number_of_stations = 50 )
station_load.0
to
station_load.n
Specifies the weight and position of passengers or payload at a station specified with a unique number, station_load.N. The first parameter number on each line specifies the weight (in pounds), followed by the offset relative to datum reference point. The addition of stations results in a corresponding change in aircraft flight dynamics due to the change of the total weight and moments of inertia. Beech Baron 58( station_load.0 = 170, -6.54, -1.20, 0.0 )
station_name.0
to
station_name.n
This field is the string name that is used in the Payload dialog (15 character limit). Omission of this will result in a generic station name being used.

Note that the station name can also follow the station_load information.
Mooney Bravo( station_name.1 = "Front Passenger" )

 
empty_weight_pitch_moi The moment of inertia (MOI) about the lateral axis. Beech Baron 58( empty_weight_pitch_MOI = 3905.65 )
empty_weight_roll_moi The moment of inertia (MOI) about the longitudinal axis. Beech Baron 58( empty_weight_roll_MOI = 2718.64 )
empty_weight_yaw_moi The moment of inertia (MOI) about the vertical axis. Beech Baron 58( empty_weight_yaw_MOI = 5291.04 )
empty_weight_coupled_moi The moment of inertia (MOI) about the roll and yaw axis (usually zero). Beech Baron 58( empty_weight_coupled_MOI= 0.0 )
Bombardier CRJ 700( empty_weight_coupled_MOI = 0.0 )

[flight_tuning]

Flight control effectiveness parameters

The elevator, aileron and elevator effectiveness parameters are multipliers on the default power of the control surfaces. For example, a value of 1.1 increases the effectiveness by 10 percent. Likewise, a value of 0.9 decreases the effectiveness by 10 percent. A negative number reverses the normal effect of the control. Omission of a parameter results in the default value of 1.0.

Stability parameters

The pitch, roll and yaw parameters are multipliers on the default stability (damping effect) about the corresponding axis of the airplane. For example, a value of 1.1 increases the damping by 10%. Likewise, a value of 0.9 decreases the damping by 10%. A negative number results in an unstable characteristic about the axis. A positive damping effect is simply a moment in the direction opposite of the rotational velocity. Omission of a parameter will result in the default value of 1.0.

Lift parameter

The cruise_lift_scalar parameter is a multiplier on the coefficient of lift at zero angle of attack Cruise lift in this context refers to the lift at relatively small angles of attack, which is typical for an airplane in a cruise condition. This scaling is decreased linearly as angle of attack moves toward the critical (stall) angle of attack, which prevents destabilizing low speed and stall characteristics at high angles of attack. Modify this value to set the angle of attack (and thus pitch) for a cruise condition. A negative value is not advised, as this will result in extremely unnatural flight characteristics. Omission of this parameter results in the default value of 1.0.

High Angle of Attack parameters

The hi_alpha_on_roll and hi_alpha_on_yaw  parameters are multipliers on the effects on roll and yaw at high angles of attack.  The default values are 1.0.

Propeller-induced turning effect parameters

The p_factor_on_yaw, torque_on_roll, gyro_precession_on_pitch and gyro_precession_on_yaw parameters are multipliers on the effects induced by rotating propellers. These are often called "left turning tendencies" for clockwise rotating propellers. The simulation correctly handles counter-clockwise rotating propellers. The default values are 1.0.

Drag parameters

Drag is the aerodynamic force that determines the aircraft speed and acceleration. There are two basic types of drag that the user can adjust here. Parasitic drag is composed of two basic elements: form drag, which results from the interference of streamlined airflow, and skin friction. Parasite drag increases as airspeed increases. Induced drag results from the production of lift. Induced drag increases as angle of attack increases.

The parasite_drag_scalar and induced_drag_scalar parameters are multipliers on the two respective drag coefficients. For example, a value of 1.1 increases the respective drag component by 10 percent. A value of 0.9 decreases the drag by 10 Percent. Negative values are not advised, as extremely unnatural flight characteristics will result.  The default values are 1.0.

Property Description Examples
cruise_lift_scalar CL0. Mooney Bravo( cruise_lift_scalar = 1.0 )
parasite_drag_scalar Cd0. Mooney Bravo( parasite_drag_scalar = 1.0 )
induced_drag_scalar Cdi. Mooney Bravo( induced_drag_scalar = 1.0 )
elevator_effectiveness Cmde. Mooney Bravo( elevator_effectiveness = 1.0 )
aileron_effectiveness Clda. Mooney Bravo( aileron_effectiveness = 1.0 )
rudder_effectiveness Cndr. Mooney Bravo( rudder_effectiveness = 1.0 )
pitch_stability Cmq. Mooney Bravo( pitch_stability = 1.0 )
roll_stability Clp. Mooney Bravo( roll_stability = 1.0 )
yaw_stability Cnr. Mooney Bravo( yaw_stability = 1.0 )
elevator_trim_effectiveness Cmdetr. Mooney Bravo( elevator_trim_effectiveness = 1.0 )
aileron_trim_effectiveness Cldatr. Mooney Bravo( aileron_trim_effectiveness = 1.0 )
rudder_trim_effectiveness Cndrtr. Mooney Bravo( rudder_trim_effectiveness = 1.0 )
hi_alpha_on_roll See notes above.  
hi_alpha_on_yaw    
p_factor_on_yaw See notes above. Piper Cub( p_factor_on_yaw = 0.3 )
torque_on_roll   Piper Cub( torque_on_roll = 0.3 )
gyro_precession_on_yaw See notes above. Piper Cub( gyro_precession_on_yaw = 0.3 )
gyro_precession_on_pitch   Piper Cub( gyro_precession_on_pitch = 0.3 )

[generalenginedata]

Every type of aircraft, even a glider, should have this section in the aircraft.cfg file.  Basically, this section describes the type of engine, the number of engines, where the engines are located, and a fuel flow scalar to modify how much fuel the engine requires to produce the calculated power.

Property Description Examples
engine_type Integer that identifies what type of engine is on the aircraft. 0 = piston, 1 = Jet, 2 = None, 3 = Helo-turbine, 4 = Rocket (not supported) 5 = Turboprop. Beech Baron 58( engine_type = 0 )
Beech King Air 350( engine_type = 5 )
engine.0
to
engine.n
Offset of the engine from the datum reference point. Each engine location specified increases the engine count (maximum of four engines allowed). Beech Baron 58( Engine.0 = -1.4, -5.3, 0.0 )

fuel_flow_scalar Scalar for modifying the fuel flow required by the engine(s). A value of less than 1.0 causes a slower fuel consumption for a given power setting, a value greater than 1.0 causes the aircraft to burn more fuel for a given power setting. Beech Baron 58( fuel_flow_scalar= 0.9 )
min_throttle_limit Defines the minimum throttle position (percent of max). Normally 0 for piston aircraft and -0.25 for turbine airplane engines with reverse thrust. Beech Baron 58( min_throttle_limit = 0.0 )
max_contrail_temperature Ambient temperature, in Celsius, in which engine vapor contrails will turn on. The default value is about -39 degrees Celsius for turbine engines. For piston engines, the contrail effect is turned off unless a temperature value is set here. Commercial Airliner( max_contrail_temperature = -30 )
master_ignition_switch 1=Available, 0=Not Available (default). If available, this switch must be on for the ignition circuit, and thus the engines, to be operable. Turning it off will stop all engines.  
starter_type Set to 1 for a Manual Starter  
thrustanglepitchheading.0 Thrust pitch and heading angles in degrees ( positive pitch down, positive heading right).  
default_oil_leak_rate The default maximum rate that oil will leak when the malfunction is selected. This rate is specified as percent per second. default_oil_leak_rate = 0.05 (20 seconds for total leak)
pct_oil_pressure_on_failure The percentage of max oil pressure in which the pressure will drop with a 100% failure of the oil system. Default is 0. This may be useful if it is desired that the pressure does not drop to zero under failure. pct_oil_pressure_on_failure = 0.55

[turbineenginedata]

A turbine engine ignites fuel and compressed air to create thrust.  These parameters define the power (thrust) output of a given jet turbine engine.

Property Description Examples
fuel_flow_gain Fuel flow gain constant. Beech King Air 350( fuel_flow_gain = 0.011 )
Bombardier CRJ 700( fuel_flow_gain = 0.0025 )
fuel_flow_gain.n Fuel flow gain constant table. This can be used in lieu of the single constant (above) in order to make the fuel flow gain a function of N1. The table will load sequentially (.0, .1, .2, ...) up to a maximum of 5 entries. Each entries first value is the N1 input, the second is the scalar at that N1. The constant will be linearly interpolated in between data points. fuel_flow_gain.0 = 00.0, 0.011
fuel_flow_gain.1 = 25.0, 0.011
fuel_flow_gain.2 = 60.0, 0.05
inlet_area Engine nacelle inlet area, (in square feet). Beech King Air 350( inlet_area = 1.0 )
Bombardier CRJ 700( inlet_area = 9.4 )
rated_n2_rpm Second stage compressor rated rpm. Beech King Air 350( rated_N2_rpm = 29920 )
static_thrust Maximum rated static thrust at sea level (lbs). Beech King Air 350( static_thrust = 158 )
Bombardier CRJ 700( static_thrust = 12670 )
afterburner_available A number, indicating the number of afterburner stages available. Bombardier CRJ 700( afterburner_available = 0 )
reverser_available Specifies the scalar on the calculated reverse thrust effect. A value of 0 will cause no reverse thrust to be available. A value of 1.0 will cause the theoretical normal reverse thrust to be available. Other values will scale the normal calculated value accordingly. Bombardier CRJ 700( reverser_available = 1 )
thrustspecificfuelconsumption Jet thrust specific fuel consumption. The ratio of fuel used in pounds per hour, to thrust in pounds. Applies at all speeds.  
afterburnthrustspecificfuelconsumption Jet thrust specific fuel consumption. The ratio of fuel used in pounds per hour, to thrust in pounds. Applies only when the afterburner is active.  
afterburner_throttle_threshold Percentage of throttle range when the afterburner engages.  

[jet_engine]

The thrust_scalar parameter scales the calculated thrust for jet engines (thrust taken from the [TurbineEngineData] section).

Property Description Examples
thrust_scalar Parameter that scales the calculated thrust provided by the propeller. Bombardier CRJ 700( thrust_scalar = 1.0 )

[electrical]

These parameters configure the characteristics of the aircraft's electrical system and its components. Each aircraft has a battery as well as an alternator or generator for each engine.

Below is a table of electrical section parameters shown with default values for Bus Type, Max Amp Load and Min Voltage (the values applied if the parameters are omitted). The default Min Voltage equals 0.7*Max Battery Voltage. The list of components also reflects all of the systems currently linked to the electrical system. If a component is included in the list but the aircraft does not actually have that system, the component is simply ignored.

Bus Type

Specifies which bus in the electrical system the component is connected to, according to the following bus type codes:

Bus Type Bus
0 Main Bus (most components connected here)
1 Avionics Bus
2 Battery Bus
3 Hot Battery Bus (bypasses Master switch)
4 Generator/Alternator Bus 1 (function of engine 1)
5 Generator/Alternator Bus 2 (function of engine 2)
6 Generator/Alternator Bus 3 (function of engine 3)
7 Generator/Alternator Bus 4 (function of engine 4)
Max Amp Load

Max Amp Load is the current required to power the component, and of course becomes the additional load on the electrical system.

Min Voltage

Min Voltage is the minimum voltage required from the specified bus for the component to function.

Property Description Examples
flap_motor Bus type, max amp, min voltage Mooney Bravo( flap_motor = 0, 5 , 17.0 )
gear_motor Bus type, max amp, min voltage Mooney Bravo( gear_motor = 0, 5 , 17.0 )
autopilot Bus type, max amp, min voltage Mooney Bravo( autopilot = 0, 5 , 17.0 )
avionics_bus Bus type, max amp, min voltage Mooney Bravo( avionics_bus = 0, 5, 17.0 )
Bombardier CRJ 700( avionics_bus = 0, 5 , 9.5 )
avionics Bus type, max amp, min voltage Mooney Bravo( avionics = 1, 5 , 17.0 )
Bombardier CRJ 700( avionics = 1, 5 , 9.5 )
pitot_heat Bus type, max amp, min voltage Mooney Bravo( pitot_heat = 0, 2 , 17.0 )
additional_system Bus type, max amp, min voltage Mooney Bravo( additional_system = 0, 2, 17.0 )
Beech King Air 350( additional_system = 0, 2 , 17.0 )
Bombardier CRJ 700( additional_system = 0, 2 , 9.5 )
marker_beacon Bus type, max amp, min voltage Mooney Bravo( marker_beacon = 1, 2 , 17.0 )
Bombardier CRJ 700( marker_beacon = 1, 2 , 9.0 )
gear_warning Bus type, max amp, min voltage Mooney Bravo( gear_warning = 0, 2 , 17.0 )
fuel_pump Bus type, max amp, min voltage Mooney Bravo( fuel_pump = 0, 5 , 17.0 )
Bombardier CRJ 700( fuel_pump = 0, 5 , 9.0 )
starter1 Bus type, max amp, min voltage Mooney Bravo( starter1 = 0, 20, 17.0 )
starter2 Bus type, max amp, min voltage  
starter3 Bus type, max amp, min voltage  
starter4 Bus type, max amp, min voltage  
light_nav Bus type, max amp, min voltage Mooney Bravo( light_nav = 0, 5 , 17.0 )
light_beacon Bus type, max amp, min voltage Mooney Bravo( light_beacon = 0, 5 , 17.0 )
light_landing Bus type, max amp, min voltage Mooney Bravo( light_landing = 0, 5 , 17.0 )
light_taxi Bus type, max amp, min voltage Mooney Bravo( light_taxi = 0, 5 , 17.0 )
light_strobe Bus type, max amp, min voltage Mooney Bravo( light_strobe = 0, 5 , 17.0 )
light_panel Bus type, max amp, min voltage Mooney Bravo( light_panel = 0, 5 , 17.0 )
light_cabin Bus type, max amp, min voltage  
prop_sync Bus type, max amp, min voltage  
auto_feather Bus type, max amp, min voltage  
auto_brakes Bus type, max amp, min voltage  
standby_vacuum Bus type, max amp, min voltage  
hydraulic_pump Bus type, max amp, min voltage  
fuel_transfer_pump Bus type, max amp, min voltage  
propeller_deice Bus type, max amp, min voltage  
light_recognition Bus type, max amp, min voltage  
light_wing Bus type, max amp, min voltage  
light_logo Bus type, max amp, min voltage  
directional_gyro Bus type, max amp, min voltage  
directional_gyro_slaving Bus type, max amp, min voltage  
max_battery_voltage The maximum voltage to which the battery can be charged. It is also the voltage available from the battery when the aircraft is initialized. The battery voltage will decrease from this if the generators or alternators are not supplying enough current to meet the demand of the active components. Beech Baron 58( max_battery_voltage = 24.0 )
DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( max_battery_voltage = 24 )
 
generator_alternator_voltage Voltage of the generators or alternators. Beech Baron 58( generator_alternator_voltage = 28.0 )
Bombardier CRJ 700( generator_alternator_voltage = 25.0 )
DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( generator_alternator_voltage = 28 )
max_generator_alternator_amps Maximum generator/alternator amps. Beech Baron 58( max_generator_alternator_amps = 60.0 )
Bombardier CRJ 700( max_generator_alternator_amps = 40.0 )
DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( max_generator_alternator_amps = 50 )
engine_generator_map Array of generator counts, corresponding to the number of engines, indicating how many generators are configured with the engine. engine_generator_map=1,1 (one generator on engine 1 and one on engine 2)
electric_always_available Set to 1 if electric power is available regardless of the state of the battery or circuit.  

[contact_points]

You can configure and adjust the way aircraft reacts to different kinds of contact, including landing gear contact and articulation, braking, steering, and damage accrued through excessive speed. You can also configure each contact point independently for each aircraft, and there is no limit to the number of points you can add. When importing an aircraft that does not contain this set of data, the program will generate the data from the .air file the first time the aircraft is loaded, and then write it to the aircraft.cfg.

Each contact point contains a series of values that define the characteristics of the point, separated by commas. A contact point has 16 parameters, described in the following table:

Contact Point Parameter (and example) Element Description
1  (1) Class Integer defining the type of contact point: 0 = None, 1 = Wheel, 2 = Scrape, 3 = Skid, 4 = Float, 5 = Water Rudder
2 (-18.0) Longitudinal Position The longitudinal distance of the point from the datum reference point.
3 (0) Lateral Position The lateral distance of the point from the datum reference point.
4 (-3.35) Vertical Position The vertical distance of the point from the datum reference point.
5 (3200) Impact Damage Threshold The speed at which an impact with the ground can cause damage (feet/min).
6 (0) Brake Map Defines which brake input drives the brake (wheels only).
0 = None, 1 = Left Brake, 2 = Right Brake.
7 (0.50) Wheel Radius Radius of the wheel (feet).
8 (180) Steering Angle The maximum angle (positive and negative) that a wheel can pivot (degrees).
9 (0.25) Static Compression This is the distance a landing gear is compressed when the empty aircraft is at rest on the ground (feet). This term defines the "strength" of the strut, where a smaller number will increase the "stiffness" of the strut.
10 (2.5) Ratio of Maximum Compression to Static Compression Ratio of the max dynamic compression available in the strut to the static value. Can be useful in coordinating the "compression" of the strut when landing.
11 (0.90) Damping Ratio This ratio describes how well the ground reaction oscillations are damped. A value of 1.0 is considered critically damped, meaning there will be little or no oscillation. A damping ratio of 0.0 is considered undamped, meaning that the oscillations will continue with a constant magnitude. Negative values result in an unstable ground handling situation, and values greater than 1.0 might also cause instabilities by being "over" damped. Typical values range from 0.6 to 0.95.
12 (1.0) Extension Time The amount of time it takes the landing gear to fully extend under normal conditions (seconds). A value of zero indicates a fixed gear.
13 (4.0) Retraction Time The amount of time it takes the landing gear to fully retract under normal conditions (seconds). A value of zero indicates a fixed gear.
14 (0) Sound Type This integer value will map a point to a type of sound:
    0 = Center Gear,
    1 = Auxiliary Gear,
    2 = Left Gear,
    3 = Right Gear,
    4 = Fuselage Scrape,
    5 = Left Wing Scrape,
    6 = Right Wing Scrape,
    7 = Aux1 Scrape,
    8 = Aux2 Scrape,
    9 = Tail Scrape.
15 (0) Airspeed Limit This is the speed at which landing gear extension becomes inhibited (knots). Not used for scrape points or non-retractable gear.
16 (200) Damage from Airspeed The speed above which the landing gear accrues damage (knots). Not used for scrape points or non-retractable gear.

Each contact point's data set takes the form "point.n=", where "n" is the index to the particular point, followed by the data.

Property Description Examples
point.0
to
point.n
Contact points that match the format described above. Beech Baron 58( point.0 = 1, 0.82, 0.00, -3.77, 1600, 0, 0.633, 40, 0.42, 4.0, 0.90, 3.0, 3.0, 0, 152, 180 )


max_number_of_points Integer value indicating the maximum number of contact points the program will look for. Mooney Bravo( max_number_of_points = 21 )
static_pitch The static pitch of the aircraft when at rest on the ground (degrees). The program uses this value to position the aircraft at startup, in slew, and at any other time when the simulation is not actively running. Beech Baron 58( static_pitch = 1.56 )
static_cg_height The static height of the aircraft when at rest on the ground (feet). The program uses this value to position the aircraft at startup, in slew, and at any other time when the simulation is not actively running. Beech Baron 58( static_cg_height = 3.43 )
gear_system_type This parameter defines the system type which drives the gear extension and retraction.
0 = electrical
1 = hydraulic
2 = pneumatic
3 = manual
4 = none
Beech Baron 58( gear_system_type=0 )
DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( gear_system_type=3 )
emergency_extension_type One of:
None = 0
Pump = 1
Gravity = 2
Hydraulic backup reserve = 3 (Needs [hydraulic_system] backup_reserve = 1)
Bombardier CRJ 700( emergency_extension_type=2 )
tailwheel_lock Boolean defining if a tailwheel lock is available (applicable only on tailwheel airplanes). Gruman Goose G21A( tailwheel_lock = 1 )

[gear_warning_system]

The following parameters define the functionality of the aircraft's gear warning system. This is generally a function of the throttle lever position and the flap deflection.

Property Description Examples
gear_warning_available Sets the type of gear warning system available on the aircraft, one of:
0 = None, 1 = Normal, 2 = Amphibian (audible alert for water vs. land setting).
Mooney Bravo( gear_warning_available = 1 )
pct_throttle_limit The throttle limit, below which the gear warning will activate if the gear is not down and locked while the flaps are deflected to at least the setting for flap_limit_idle below. This flap limit can be 0 so that the warning effectively is a function of the throttle. A value between: 0 (idle) and 1.0 (Max throttle). Mooney Bravo( pct_throttle_limit = 0.1 )
flap_limit_idle In conjunction with the throttle limit specified above, this limit is the flap deflection, above which the warning will activate if the gear is not down and locked while the throttle is below the limit specified above. By setting this limit to a value greater than zero, the pilot can reduce the throttle to idle without activating the warning. This is often utilized in jets to decelerate/descend the aircraft. Mooney Bravo( flap_limit_idle = 0.0 )
Beech Baron 58( flap_limit_idle = 0.0 )
Beech King Air 350( flap_limit_idle = 15.0 )
flap_limit_power The flap limit, above which the warning will activate (regardless of throttle position). Mooney Bravo( flap_limit_power = 16.0 )
Beech Baron 58( flap_limit_power = 31.5 )
Beech King Air 350( flap_limit_power = 30.0 )

[brakes]

The following parameters define the aircraft's braking system:

Property Description Examples
parking_brake Boolean setting if a parking brake is available on the aircraft. Mooney Bravo( parking_brake = 1 )
DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( parking_brake = 0 )
toe_brakes_scale Sets the scaling of the braking effectiveness. 1.0 is the default. 0.0 scales the brakes to no effectiveness. Beech Baron 58( toe_brakes_scale = 1.0 )
auto_brakes The number of increments that the auto-braking switch can be turned to. Beech Baron 58( auto_brakes = 0 )
hydraulic_system_scalar The ratio of hydraulic system pressure to maximum brake hydraulic pressure. Bombardier CRJ 700( hydraulic_system_scalar = 1 )
differential_braking_scale Differential braking is a function of the normal both brakes on and the rudder pedal input. The amount of difference between the left and right brake is scaled by this value. 1.0 is the normal setting if differential braking is desired (particularly on tailwheel airplanes). 0.0 is the setting if no differential braking is desired. Piper Cub( differential_braking_scale = 1.0 )
parking_brake_linked_to_toe_brakes By default, the parking brake will release upon application of toe brakes. If this is not desired, setting this to 0 will prevent this behavior. parking_brake_linked_to_toe_brakes = 0

[hydraulic_system]

The following parameters define the aircraft's hydraulic system:

Property Description Examples
normal_pressure The normal operating pressure of the hydraulic system, in pounds per square inch. Beech Baron 58( normal_pressure = 0.0 )
DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( normal_pressure = 1000.0 )
electric_pumps The number of electric hydraulic pumps the aircraft is configured with. Beech King Air 350( electric_pumps = 0 )
engine_map This array of positive integers sets the number of hydraulic pumps on the corresponding engines of the aircraft. The values correspond to the order of the engines, starting with the left-most engine first and moving right. By default, all engines are not equipped with any hydraulic pumps. DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( engine_map = 1 )
backup_reserve This system includes a backup reservoir for use after primary pumps have failed. ( backup_reserve = 1 )
max_reservoir_pressure_efficiency The approximate level in which the pumps will maintain the reservoir level. Set to 1.0 if a perfect system is desired. ( max_reservoir_pressure_efficiency = 0.98 )
min_pct_rpm_for_max_pressure The percentage of maximum engine RPM that engine driven hydraulic pumps will achieve 100% of normal pressure. The pressure will ramp up linearly. Omission of this constant will result in use of an internal mapping of RPM to pressure. ( min_pct_rpm_for_max_pressure = 0.2 )

[views]

The following parameter define the pilot's viewpoint.

Property Description Examples
eyepoint Position relative to datum reference point. Beech Baron 58( eyepoint = -8.213, -0.8612, 2.220 )
zoom Zoom the view in or out from the viewpoint. Default( zoom=1.0 )

[flaps.n]

For each flap set that is on the aircraft, a corresponding [flaps.n] section should exist.  Most general aviation aircraft and smaller jets only have one set of flaps (trailing edge), but it is typical for the larger commercial aircraft to have a set of leading edge flaps in addition to the trailing edge flaps.  The number of flap sets are determined by the number of [flaps.n] sections contained in the aircraft.cfg file.

Property Description Examples
type Integer value that indicates if this is a leading edge or trailing edge flap set:
0 = no flaps 1 = trailing edge, 2 = leading edge.
Mooney Bravo( type = 1 )
span-outboard The percentage of half-wing span the flap extends to (from the wing-fuselage intersection). Beech Baron 58( span-outboard = 0.41 )
Beech King Air 350( span-outboard = 0.5 )
extending-time Time it takes for the flap set to extend to the fullest deflection angle specified (seconds). Mooney Bravo( extending-time = 5 )
flaps-position.0
to
flaps-position.n
Each element of the flaps-position array indicates the deflection angle to which the flaps will deflect (in degrees). The largest deflection angle will be the one used for full flap deflection. Maule M7 260C( flaps-position.0 = -7 )
damaging-speed Speed at which the flaps begin to accrue damage (Knots Indicated Airspeed, KIAS). Beech Baron 58( damaging-speed = 152 )
blowout-speed Speed at which the flaps depart the aircraft (Knots Indicated Airspeed, KIAS). Mooney Bravo( blowout-speed = 300 )
lift_scalar The percentage of total lift due to flap deflection that this flap set is responsible for at full deflection. Mooney Bravo( lift_scalar = 1.0 )
drag_scalar The percentage of total drag due to flap deflection that this flap set is responsible for at full deflection. Mooney Bravo( drag_scalar = 1.0 )
pitch_scalar The percentage of total pitch due to flap deflection that this flap set is responsible for at full deflection. Mooney Bravo( pitch_scalar= 1.0 )
system_type Integer value that indicates what type of system drives the flaps to deflect:, one of:
0 = Electric
1 = Hydraulic
2 = Pneumatic
3 = Manual
4 = None
Mooney Bravo( system_type = 1 )
 

[radios]

There should be a radio section in each aircraft.cfg.  This section configures the radios for each individual aircraft.  Each of the following keywords has a flag or set of flags, that determine if the particular radio element is available in the aircraft.  A "1" is used for true (or available), and 0 for false (or not available). 

Property Description Examples
audio.1 Is there an audio panel, set to 1. Mooney Bravo( Audio.1 = 1 )
com.1 Two flags, set the first one to 1 if a Com1 radio is available, and the second if it supports a standby frequency. Mooney Bravo( Com.1 = 1, 1 )
Beech King Air 350( Com.1 = 1, 0 )
com.2 Two flags, set the first one to 1 if a Com2 radio is available, and the second if it supports a standby frequency. You cannot have Com2 without Com1. Mooney Bravo( Com.2 = 1, 1 )
Beech King Air 350( Com.2 = 1, 0 )
nav.1 Three flags, set the first to 1 if there is a Nav1 receiver, the second if it supports a standby frequency, and the third if it supports a glideslope indication. Mooney Bravo( Nav.1 = 1, 1, 1 )
Beech King Air 350( Nav.1 = 1, 0, 1 )
 
nav.2 Three flags, set the first to 1 if there is a Nav2 receiver, the second if it supports a standby frequency, and the third if it supports a glideslope indication. You cannot have Nav2 without Nav1. Mooney Bravo( Nav.2 = 1, 1, 0 )
Beech King Air 350( Nav.2 = 1, 0, 0 )
adf.1 If there is an ADF receiver, set to 1. Mooney Bravo( Adf.1 = 1 )
adf.2 If there is an ADF2 receiver, set to 1. Bombardier CRJ 700( Adf.2 = 1 )
tacan.1 Two flags, set the first to 1 if there is a Tacan 1 receiver and the second if it supports a standby frequency. Tacan.1 = 1, 1, 0
tacan.2 Two flags, set the first to 1 if there is a Tacan 2 receiver and the second if it supports a standby frequency. You cannot have Tacan2 without Tacan1. Tacan.2 = 1, 1, 0
transponder.1 If there is a transponder, set to 1. Mooney Bravo( Transponder.1 = 1 )
marker.1 If there is a marker beacon receiver, set to 1. Mooney Bravo( Marker.1 = 1 )
 
ComFrequencyRange Sets the min and max frequency, in MHz, in which the aircraft's COM radios are limited. 118 - 137 is the default range. ComFrequencyRange = 118.000,137.000

[lights]

Each light that requires a special effect should be entered in this section. The following table gives the codes for the switches that will turn on the lights.

Code Switch
1 Beacon
2 Strobe
3 Navigation or Position
4 Cockpit
5 Landing
6 Taxi
7 Recognition
8 Wing
9 Logo
10 Cabin
11 General
12 Headlight
13 Brake
Property Description Examples
light.0
to
light.n
The first entry of the line defines which circuit, or switch, the light is connected to (see the code table above). Multiple lights may be connected to a single switch. The next three entries are the position relative to datum reference point. The final entry is the special effect file name that is triggered (for example, fx_navred). These files have .fx extensions and should be placed in the root effects folder. Beech Baron 58( light.0 = 3, -6.60, -19.29, 0.79, fx_navred , )

Beech King Air 350( light.0 = 3, 0.56, -28.41, 1.97, fx_navred , )
Beech King Air 350( light.1 = 3, 0.56, 28.41, 1.97, fx_navgre , )
Beech King Air 350( light.2 = 3, -31.20, 0.00, 9.09, fx_navwhi , )
Beech King Air 350( light.3 = 2, 0.89, -28.48, 1.87, fx_strobe , )

[keyboard_response]

The aircraft flight controls can be manipulated by the keyboard. Because flight controls naturally become more sensitive as airspeed increases, it can become quite difficult to control the aircraft via the keyboard at high speeds.  To address this problem, the amount a single keypress increments a flight control is decreased by a factor of 1/2 at the first airspeed (in knots) listed on the line for the control, and to 1/8 at the second airspeed, and to  a scale interpolated from these values for all airspeeds in between. The example below shows that an elevator will increment by one degree when the airspeed is zero, by ¾ of one degree at 50 knots, ½ of one degree at 100 knots, 5/16 of one degree at 140 knots, and 1/8 of one degree at 180 knots or greater speed.

Property Description Examples
elevator Two breakpoint speeds for keypress increments. Mooney Bravo( elevator = 100, 180 )
aileron Two breakpoint speeds for keypress increments. Mooney Bravo( aileron = 200, 1000 )
rudder Two breakpoint speeds for keypress increments. Mooney Bravo( rudder = 200, 1000 )

[direction_indicators]

This section is used to define the characteristics of the direction indicators on the instrument panels, but does not include the magnetic compass (which has a separate section).  The list of indicators should be listed in order: 0,1,2,…n. 

Property Description Examples
direction_indicator.0
to
direction_indicator.n
One or two codes. If the indicator is type 4, then there must be two entries here (the indicator, and the indicator to which this one is slaved).  The indicator codes are:
0 = None
1 = Vacuum gyro
2 = Electric gyro
3 = Electro-mag slaved compass
4 = Slaved to another indicator
Mooney Bravo( direction_indicator.0=1,0 )
induction_compass.0
to
induction_compass.n
If there is an induction compass, one of:
1 = Electric
2 = Anemometer driven
 

[attitude_indicators]

This section is used to define the characteristics of the attitude indicators on the instrument panels. The list of indicators should be listed in order: 0,1,2,...n. 

Property Description Examples
attitude_indicator.0
to
attitude_indicator.n
The system which drives the attitude indicator. One of:
0 = none
1 = Vacuum driven gyro
2 = Electrically driven gyro
Beech Baron 58( attitude_indicator.0 = 1 )

[altimeters]

Property Description Examples
altimeter.0
to
altimeter.n
If the parameter is set to 1, a separate altimeter is instantiated, which will operate independently of other altimeters, and can have failures applied to it. Mooney Bravo( altimeter.0=1 )
Mooney Bravo( altimeter.1=1 )

[turn_indicators]

This section is used to define the characteristics of the turn indicators on the instrument panels.  The list of indicators should be listed in order: 0,1,2,…n. 

Property Description Examples
turn_indicator.0 Two code values, which define the system on which the turn indicators are dependent. The first value is for turn, the second for bank. The codes are:
0 = None
1 = Electrically driven gyro
2 = Vacuum driven gyro
Beech Baron 58( turn_indicator.0=1,1 )
DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( turn_indicator.0=1 )

[vacuum_system]

The following parameters define the aircraft's vacuum system:

Property Description Examples
max_pressure Maximum pressure in psi. Mooney Bravo( max_pressure=5.15 )
vacuum_type Vacuum type, one of:
0 = None
1 = Engine pump (default)
2 = Pneumatic
3 = Venturi.
Mooney Bravo( vacuum_type=1 )
electric_backup_pressure Backup pressure in psi. Beech Baron 58( electric_backup_pressure=4.900000 )
Mooney Bravo( electric_backup_pressure=4.9 )
engine_map This series of flags sets whether the corresponding engines of the aircraft are configured with vacuum systems. The flags correspond in order of the engines, starting with the left-most engine first and moving right. Beech Baron 58( engine_map=1,1 )

[pneumatic_system]

The following parameters define the aircraft's pneumatic pressure system:

Property Description Examples
max_pressure The maximum pressure of the pneumatic system. Piper Cub( max_pressure=0 )
bleed_air_scalar The ratio of bleed-air pressure from the engines to pneumatic air pressure in the pneumatic system. Beech Baron 58( bleed_air_scalar=0.00000 )

[exits]

The following parameters define the aircraft's exits:

Property Description Examples
number_of_exits This value defines the number of simulated exits, or doors, on the aircraft. Beech Baron 58( number_of_exits = 1 )
exit.0
to
exit.n
Five values: the open and close rate percent per second (where 1.0 is fully open), the position relative to datum reference point, and the type of exit, one of:
0 = Main
1 = Cargo
2 = Emergency
Bombardier CRJ 700( exit.0 = 0.4, -16.50, -4.5, 0.5, 0 )
Bombardier CRJ 700( exit.1 = 0.4, -74.00, -4.5, 0.5, 1 )
Bombardier CRJ 700( exit.2 = 0.4, -36.50, -2.5, -1.0, 1 )

[effects]

The effects section of the file refers to the visual effects that result from various systems or reactions of the aircraft. An effect file associated with a keyword in this section will be used when the corresponding action is triggered.  If no entry is made a default effect file will be used. The table below outlines the aircraft effects currently supported, though of course not all effects are supported on all aircraft.

Each entry can be followed by a 1 if the effect is to be run for a single iteration. Set this number to zero or leave blank (the default), for the effect to continue as long as the respective action is active. Make an entry in the configuration file to replace any of these effects with a new one. Or to turn off the effect add an entry that references the fx_dummy effect (which does nothing).

Property Description Default Single Iteration Examples
wake The wake effect name. fx_wake False Mooney Bravo( wake=fx_wake )
water The landing, taxiing or taking off from water effect. fx_spray False Mooney Bravo( water=fx_spray )
waterspeed Traveling at speed on the water. fx_spray False  
dirt Moving on dirt. fx_tchdrt False Mooney Bravo( dirt=fx_tchdrt )
concrete Moving on concrete. fx_sparks False Mooney Bravo( concrete=fx_sparks )
touchdown The touchdown effect, which usually is followed by an optional 1 to indicate the effect is to be run once only. fx_tchdwn True Mooney Bravo( touchdown=fx_tchdwn_s, 1 )
contrail Contrail effect, applies to jets flying above 29000ft. fx_contrail_l False  
startup Engine startup. fx_engstrt True Piper Cub( startup=fx_engstrt_cub )
landrotorwash Rotor wash. Helicopters only. fx_rtr_lnd False  
waterrotorwash Water rotor wash. Helicopters only. fx_rtr_wtr False  
vaportrail_l Left wing vapor trail. fx_vaportrail_l False  
vaportrail_r Right wing vapor trail. fx_vaportrail_r False  
l_wingtipvortice Left wingtip vortice (contrails off the wingtip, usually from a jet such as the F18). fx_wingtipvortice_l True  
r_wingtipvortice Right wingtip vortice. fx_wingtipvortice_r True  
fueldump Fuel dump active. No default effect False  
EngineFire Engine fire. fx_engfire False  
EngineDamage Engine damage. fx_engsmoke False  
EngineOilLeak Oil leak. fx_OilLeak False  
SkidPavement Skid on tarmac, leaves a mark. fx_skidmark False  
SnowSkiTrack Skid on snow. No default effect False Maule M7 260C Ski paint1( SnowTrack = fx_snowtrack )
WheelSnowSpray Taking off on snow. fx_WheelSnowSpray False Maule M7 260C Ski paint1( WheelSnowSpray = fx_WheelSnowSpray )
WheelWetSpray Taking off on wet runway. fx_WheelWetSpray False Maule M7 260C Ski paint1( WheelWetSpray = fx_WheelWetSpray )
WetEngineWash Similar to waterrotorwash, the effect a propeller has on wet terrain when flying below 20m. fx_WetEngineWash False  
SnowEngineWash Similar to waterrotorwash, the effect a propeller has on snow covered terrain, or when it is snowing, when flying below 20m. fx_SnowEngineWash False  
WaterBallastDrain Draining the water ballast, applies only to sailplanes. fx_WaterBallastDrain False  
PistonFailure One or more pistons failed. fx_PistonFailure True  
Killed When health points drop below 0, the object is determined to be killed. An effect such as smoke or fire is most typically played. fx_FlamingDebris False  
windshield_rain_effect_available Special case, set this to 0 to turn off the effect of rain on the windshield.      

[autopilot]

The following parameters determine the functionality of the aircraft's autopilot system, including the flight director.

Navigation Modes:

The navigation and glideslope controllers utilize standard proportional/integral /derivative feedback controllers (PID).  The integrator and derivative controllers have boundaries, which are the maximum error from the controlled parameter in which these are active.  It is not necessary to have all three components active.  Setting the respective control constant to 0 effectively disables that component, allowing PI or PD controllers to be utilized. Navigation mode parameters begin with nav_ or gs_.

Property Description Examples
autopilot_available Setting this flag to a 1 makes available an autopilot system on the aircraft. Mooney Bravo( autopilot_available=1 )
flight_director_available Setting this flag to a 1 makes available a flight director on the aircraft. Mooney Bravo( flight_director_available=1 )
default_vertical_speed The default vertical speed, in feet per second, that the autopilot will command when selecting a large altitude change. Beech Baron 58( default_vertical_speed= 700.0 )
Beech King Air 350( default_vertical_speed= 1800.0 )
autothrottle_available Setting this flag to a 1 makes available an autothrottle system on the aircraft.

Note: Not applicable to helicopters.

Beech Baron 58( autothrottle_available= 0 )
autothrottle_arming_required Setting this flag to 1 will require that the autothrottle be armed prior to it being engaged. Setting it to zero allows the autothrottle to be engaged directly.

Note: Not applicaple to helicopters.

Bombardier CRJ 700( autothrottle_arming_required= 0 )
autothrottle_max_rpm This sets the maximum engine speed, in percent, that the autothrottle will attempt to maintain.

Note: Not applicaple to helicopters.

Bombardier CRJ 700( autothrottle_max_rpm = 90 )
autothrottle_takeoff_ga Setting this flag to 1 enables takeoff / go-around operations with the autothrottle.

Note: Not applicaple to helicopters.

Bombardier CRJ 700( autothrottle_takeoff_ga= 0 )
helo_airspeed_hold For helicopters only, setting this flag to 1 enables airspeed hold capability.

Note: Not applicaple to airplanes.

default_pitch_mode This determines the default pitch mode when the autopilot logic is turned on.
0 = None
1 = Pitch Hold (Airplane: current pitch angle, Helicopter: pitch stability mode).
2 = Altitude Hold (current altitude)
If no value is set, Pitch Hold will be the default.
 
pitch_takeoff_ga The default pitch that the Takeoff/Go-Around mode references.

Note: Not applicaple to helicopters.

Beech Baron 58( pitch_takeoff_ga=8.0 )
max_pitch The maximum pitch angle in degrees that the autopilot will command either up or down. Mooney Bravo( max_pitch=10.0 )
max_pitch_acceleration The maximum angular pitch acceleration, in degrees per second squared, that the autopilot will command up or down.

Note: Not applicaple to helicopters.

Mooney Bravo( max_pitch_acceleration=1.0 )
max_pitch_velocity_lo_alt The maximum angular pitch velocity, in degrees per second, which the autopilot will command when at an altitude below that specified by the variable max_pitch_velocity_lo_alt_breakpoint.

Note: Not applicaple to helicopters.

Mooney Bravo( max_pitch_velocity_lo_alt=2.0 )
max_pitch_velocity_hi_alt The maximum angular pitch velocity, in degrees per second, which the autopilot will command when at an altitude above the altitude specified by the variable max_pitch_velocity_hi_alt_breakpoint. The maximum velocity is interpolated between the hi and lo altitude velocities when between the hi and lo altitude breakpoints.

Note: Not applicaple to helicopters.

Mooney Bravo( max_pitch_velocity_hi_alt=1.5 )
max_pitch_velocity_lo_alt_breakpoint The altitude below which the autopilot maximum pitch velocity is limited by the variable max_pitch_velocity_lo_alt.

Note: Not applicaple to helicopters.

Mooney Bravo( max_pitch_velocity_lo_alt_breakpoint=20000.0 )
max_pitch_velocity_hi_alt_breakpoint The altitude above which the autopilot maximum pitch velocity is limited by the variable max_pitch_velocity_hi_alt. The maximum velocity is interpolated between the hi and lo altitude velocities when between the hi and lo altitude breakpoints.

Note: Not applicaple to helicopters.

Mooney Bravo( max_pitch_velocity_hi_alt_breakpoint=28000.0 )
max_bank The maximum bank angle in degrees that the autopilot will command either left or right.
Bombardier CRJ 700( max_bank=30,15 )
max_bank_acceleration The maximum angular bank acceleration, in degrees per second squared, that the autopilot will command left or right.

Note: Not applicaple to helicopters.

Mooney Bravo( max_bank_acceleration=1.8 )
max_bank_velocity The maximum angular bank velocity, in degrees per second, which the autopilot will command left or right.

Note: Not applicaple to helicopters.

Mooney Bravo( max_bank_velocity=3.00 )
max_throttle_rate This value sets the maximum rate at which the autothrottle will move the throttle position. In the example, the maximum rate is set to 10% of the total throttle range per second.

Note: Not applicaple to helicopters.

Mooney Bravo( max_throttle_rate=0.10 )
nav_proportional_control Proportional controller constant in lateral navigation modes. Beech Baron 58( nav_proportional_control=9.00 )
Bombardier CRJ 700( nav_proportional_control=11.00 )
nav_integrator_control Integral controller constant in lateral navigation modes. Bombardier CRJ 700( nav_integrator_control=0.20 )
nav_derivative_control Derivative controller constant in lateral navigation modes. Mooney Bravo( nav_derivative_control=0.00 )
nav_integrator_boundary The boundary, or maximum signal error, in degrees in which the integrator function is active. In the example, the integrator is active when the error is between -2.5 and +2.5 degrees from the centerline of the navigation signal. Mooney Bravo( nav_integrator_boundary=2.50 )

nav_derivative_boundary The boundary, or maximum signal error, in degrees in which the derivative function is active. In the example, the derivative controller is not active because the maximum error is set to 0. Mooney Bravo( nav_derivative_boundary=0.00 )

gs_proportional_control Proportional controller constant in glideslope mode. Beech Baron 58( gs_proportional_control=9.52 )
gs_integrator_control Integral controller constant in glideslope mode. Beech Baron 58( gs_integrator_control=0.26 )
gs_derivative_control Derivative controller constant in glideslope mode.  
gs_integrator_boundary The boundary, or maximum signal error, in degrees in which the glideslope integrator function is active. In the example, the integrator is active when the error is between -0.7 and +0.7 degrees from the centerline of the glideslope signal.  
gs_derivative_boundary The boundary, or maximum signal error, in degrees in which the derivative function is active. In the example, the derivative controller is not active because the maximum error is set to 0.  
yaw_damper_gain The proportional gain on the yaw dampers yaw rate error. Beech Baron 58( yaw_damper_gain = 0.0 )
direction_indicator Indicates which direction indicator system on the aircraft is being referenced by the autopilot.
0 = the first, and is the default.
 
attitude_indicator Indicates which attitude indicator system on the aircraft is being referenced by the autopilot.
0 = the first, and is the default.
 
default_bank_mode This determines the default bank mode when the autopilot logic is turned on.
0 = None
1 = Wing Level Hold
2 = Heading Hold (current heading).
3 = Bank Hold (Airplane: current bank angle, Helicopter: roll stability mode).

If no value is set, Wing Level Hold will be the default.
 
Miscellaneous default AP modes:

The following flags are legacy, and were enabled to allow aircraft to be configured with no pitch and/or bank modes.  While these flags are still supported, the preferred flags are included above in the respective vertical and lateral sections. 

Property Description Examples
use_no_default_pitch Setting this flag to 1 will cause the default pitch mode to be "None". It will actually set the variable default_pitch_mode to zero, so that there is no default pitch mode when the autopilot logic is activated.
The preferred method is to test the default_bank_mode directly.
See examples for default_bank_mode

[fuel]

This section defines the characteristics of the fuel system, including the tanks, fuel type, and the number of fuel selectors. The number of fuel selectors is intended to match the number of visual selectors on the instrument panel.

Property Description Examples
center1
center2
center3
leftmain
leftaux
lefttip
rightmain
rightaux
righttip
external1
external2
Position of the tank relative to datum reference point, followed by the usable and unusable capacities of the tanks, in gallons. Bombardier CRJ 700( Center1 = -48.7, 0.0, -4.0, 982.0, 0.0 )
DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( Center3=-10.600000,0.000000,-1.900000,25.000000,0.000000 )
Beech Baron 58( RightMain = -8.46, 6.45, 0.0, 71.0, 0.0 )
Maule M7 260C( LeftAux = -2.24, -11.4, 2.40, 15.0, 0.00 )
fuel_type One of:
1 = Avgas
2 = JetA
Beech Baron 58( fuel_type = 1 )
number_of_tank_selectors Number of fuel tank selectors (maximum 4 and should be less than or equal to the number of engines). Beech Baron 58( number_of_tank_selectors = 2 )
electric_pump Boolean that sets whether an electric boost pump is available, 0 = FALSE, 1 = TRUE. Mooney Bravo( electric_pump = 1 )
fuel_dump_rate Percent of fuel that can be dumped per second.  
engine_driven_pump Set to 0 if the pump is engine driven (1 is the default). DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( engine_driven_pump=1 )
manual_pump Set to 1 if there is a manual transfer pump. DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( manual_transfer_pump=1 )
anemometer_pump Set to 1 if there is an anemometer pump.  
default_leak_rate_gps Allows overriding the default maximum rate (gallons per second) when a fuel leak is selected. default_leak_rate_gps = 0.2

[airplane_geometry]

This section has been added mainly for reference. Although you can edit these values by hand here in the aircraft.cfg file, modification of some of these variables will have little to no effect on airplane performance, as the flight model aerodynamic coefficients are all located in the .air file. 

Property Description Examples
wing_area Area of the top surface of the entire wing tip-to-tip (ft2). Beech Baron 58( wing_area = 199.0 )
wing_span Wing span is the horizontal distance from wing-tip to wing-tip (feet). Beech Baron 58( wing_span = 37.8 )
wing_root_chord Length of the wing chord (leading edge to trailing edge) at the intersection of the wing and the fuselage (feet). Beech Baron 58( wing_root_chord = 5.3 )
wing_dihedral When looking at the front of an aircraft, this is the angle between the wing leading edge and a horizontal line parallel to the ground (degrees). Beech Baron 58( wing_dihedral = 6.9 )
wing_incidence When looking at the side of an aircraft from the wing tip, this is the angle the mean wing chord makes with a horizontal line parallel to the ground, (degrees). Note: this parameter is not used in the real-time aerodynamic calculations, as it is already factored into the lift and drag parameters. Mooney Bravo( wing_incidence = 2.5 )
wing_twist This is the difference in wing incidence from the root chord and the tip chord of the wing, (degrees). Also known as wash-out. Beech King Air 350( wing_twist = -1.5 )
oswald_efficiency_factor This is a measure of the aerodynamic efficiency of the wing. A theoretically perfect wing will have a factor of 1.0. Beech Baron 58( oswald_efficiency_factor= 0.7 )
wing_winglets_flag Boolean to indicate if the aircraft incorporates the use of winglets; 0 = FALSE, 1 = TRUE. Mooney Bravo( wing_winglets_flag= 0 )
wing_sweep When looking down on top of an aircraft, this is the angle the wing leading edge makes with a horizontal line perpendicular to the fuselage, (degrees). Beech Baron 58( wing_sweep = 0.0 )
wing_pos_apex_lon Longitudinal distance of the wing apex (measured at centerline of aircraft) from defined reference point (feet). This distance is measured positive in the forward (out the aircraft nose) direction. Beech Baron 58( wing_pos_apex_lon = -5.6 )
wing_pos_apex_vert Vertical distance of the wing apex (measured at centerline of aircraft) from defined reference point (feet). This distance is measured positive in the up direction. Bombardier CRJ 700( wing_pos_apex_vert = -3.6 )
htail_area Area of the top surface of the entire horizontal tail (tip-to-tip) (ft2). Beech Baron 58( htail_area = 60.0 )
htail_span Horizontal tail span is the horizontal distance from horizontal tail-tip to horizontal tail -tip (feet). Beech Baron 58( htail_span = 15.9 )
htail_pos_lon Longitudinal distance of the horizontal tail apex (measured at centerline of aircraft) from defined reference point (feet). This distance is measured positive in the forward (out the aircraft nose) direction. Beech Baron 58( htail_pos_lon = -20.1 )
htail_pos_vert Vertical distance of the horizontal tail apex (measured at centerline of aircraft) from defined reference point, (feet). This distance is measured positive in the up direction. Bombardier CRJ 700( htail_pos_vert = 12.7 )
DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( htail_pos_vert = 0.9 )
htail_incidence When looking at the side of an aircraft from the horizontal tail tip, this is the angle the mean horizontal tail chord makes with a horizontal line parallel to the ground (degrees). Beech Baron 58( htail_incidence = 0.5 )
Bombardier CRJ 700( htail_incidence = 4.0 )
htail_sweep When looking down on top of an aircraft, this is the angle the horizontal tail leading edge makes with a horizontal line perpendicular to the fuselage (degrees). Beech Baron 58( htail_sweep = 0.0 )
vtail_area Area of the surface of one side of the vertical tail (fuselage-to-tip) (ft2). Beech Baron 58( vtail_area = 88.0 )
vtail_span Vertical tail span is the vertical distance from the vertical tail-fuselage intersection to the tip of the vertical tail (feet). Beech Baron 58( vtail_span = 10.7 )
vtail_sweep When looking at the side of the vertical tail, this is the angle the vertical tail leading edge makes with a vertical line perpendicular to the fuselage (degrees). Beech Baron 58( vtail_sweep = 0.0 )
vtail_pos_lon Longitudinal distance of the vertical tail apex (measured at centerline of aircraft) from defined reference point, (feet). This distance is measured positive in the forward (out the aircraft nose) direction. Beech Baron 58( vtail_pos_lon = -22.9 )
vtail_pos_vert Vertical distance of the vertical tail apex (measured at centerline of aircraft) from defined reference point (feet). This distance is measured positive in the up direction. Beech Baron 58( vtail_pos_vert = 3.1 )
elevator_area Area of the top surface of the entire elevator (tip-to-tip) (ft2). Beech Baron 58( elevator_area = 20.0 )
aileron_area Area of the top surface of all the ailerons on the wing (ft2). Beech Baron 58( aileron_area = 11.3 )
rudder_area Area of the side surface of the entire rudder (ft2). Beech Baron 58( rudder_area = 10.5 )
elevator_up_limit Angular limit of the elevator when deflected up (degrees). Beech Baron 58( elevator_up_limit = 17.0 )
elevator_down_limit Angular limit of the elevator when deflected down (degrees). Beech Baron 58( elevator_down_limit = 15.5 )
aileron_up_limit Angular limit of the aileron when deflected up (degrees). Beech Baron 58( aileron_up_limit = 18.0 )
aileron_down_limit Angular limit of the aileron when deflected down (degrees). Beech Baron 58( aileron_down_limit = 18.0 )
rudder_limit Angular limit of the rudder deflection (degrees). Beech Baron 58( rudder_limit = 30.0 )
elevator_trim_limit Angular limit of the elevator trim tab (degrees). Beech Baron 58( elevator_trim_limit = 15.0 )
spoiler_limit Angular limit of the wing spoilers on an aircraft, (degrees). If this limit is zero, no spoilers exist for the aircraft. Beech Baron 58( spoiler_limit = 0.0 )
spoiler_extension_time Spoiler extension time in seconds. Mooney Bravo( spoiler_extension_time = 0.25 )
spoilerons_available Boolean to indicate if the spoilers also behave as spoilerons for roll control (if spoilers are available): 0 = FALSE, 1 = TRUE. Beech Baron 58( spoilerons_available = 0 )
aileron_to_spoileron_gain If spoilerons are available, this value is the constant used in determining the amount of spoiler deflection per aileron deflection. Beech Baron 58( aileron_to_spoileron_gain = 0 )
Bombardier CRJ 700( aileron_to_spoileron_gain = 4.6 )
min_ailerons_for_spoilerons This value indicates at what aileron deflection the spoilers are become active for roll control, (degrees). Beech Baron 58( min_ailerons_for_spoilerons = 0 )
Bombardier CRJ 700( min_ailerons_for_spoilerons = 5 )
min_flaps_for_spoilerons This value indicates at what minimum flap handle position the spoilerons become active. Bombardier CRJ 700( min_flaps_for_spoilerons= 0.0 )
auto_spoiler_available Set to 1 if auto spoiler is available. Beech Baron 58( auto_spoiler_available = 0 )
spoiler_system_type Integer value that indicates what type of system drives the spoilers to deflect. One of:
0 = Electric
1 = Hydraulic
2 = Pneumatic
3 = Manual
4 = None
( spoiler_system_type = 1 )
positive_g_limit_flaps_up Design g load tolerance (flaps up). Beech Baron 58( positive_g_limit_flaps_up = 3.0 )
positive_g_limit_flaps_down Design g load tolerance (flaps down). Mooney Bravo( positive_g_limit_flaps_down=2.000000 )
 
negative_g_limit_flaps_up Design g load tolerance (negative, flaps up). Beech Baron 58( negative_g_limit_flaps_up = -2.0 )
negative_g_limit_flaps_down Design g load tolerance (negative, flaps down). Mooney Bravo( negative_g_limit_flaps_down= -1.5 )
load_safety_factor Design g load safety factor. Mooney Bravo( load_safety_factor = 1.5 )
fly_by_wire Fly by wire system available.  
spoiler_handle_available Boolean that configures the airplane with manual control of the spoiler deflections. 0 = FALSE, 1 = TRUE.  
flap_to_aileron_scale Flaperons - deflection of ailerons due to flap deflection. DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( flap_to_aileron_scale = 0.3 )
aileron_to_rudder_scale Link the rudder to aileron input.  
elevator_hydraulic_boost_percent Specifies the percentage of aileron deflection (0.0 - 1.0) dependent on hydraulic pressure. For example, a value of 0.8 (80%) would mean that only 0.2 (20%) deflection would be possible with no hydraulic pressure. The default value is 0.0, no hydraulic dependency. aileron_hydraulic_boost_percent=0.8
rudder_hydraulic_boost_percent Specifies the percentage of rudder deflection (0.0 - 1.0) dependent on hydraulic pressure. For example, a value of 0.8 (80%) would mean that only 0.2 (20%) deflection would be possible with no hydraulic pressure. The default value is 0.0, no hydraulic dependency. rudder_hydraulic_boost_percent=0.8

[reference speeds]

The values given in this section are mainly for reference, as the performance of the aircraft is held in the .air file.

Property Description Examples
flaps_up_stall_speed Stall speed of the aircraft in a clean (flaps up) configuration at standard sea level conditions, (Knots True Airspeed, KTAS). Beech Baron 58( flaps_up_stall_speed = 84.0 )
full_flaps_stall_speed Stall speed of the aircraft in a dirty (flaps full down) configuration at standard sea level conditions, (Knots True Airspeed, KTAS). Beech Baron 58( full_flaps_stall_speed = 75.0 )
cruise_speed Typical cruise speed of the aircraft in a clean (flaps up) configuration at a typical cruise altitude, (Knots True Airspeed, KTAS). Beech Baron 58( cruise_speed = 180.0 )
max_mach Maximum design mach of the aircraft. This generally only applies to turbine airplanes. Beech King Air 350( max_mach = 0.58 )
Bombardier CRJ 700( max_mach = 0.83 )
max_indicated_speed Maximum design indicated airspeed. Also referred to as Never Exceed Speed or Red Line of the aircraft, (Knots Indicated Airspeed). Beech Baron 58( max_indicated_speed = 223 )

[forcefeedback]

As detailed in the tables below, the parameters in this section of an aircraft.cfg file define the forces generated by that aircraft if the user is operating a force feedback joystick.

Stick shaker parameters

These parameters define the simulated stick shaker force felt in the stick or yoke when flying an aircraft equipped with a stick shaker (such as the Learjet 45).

Gear bump parameters

These parameters define the simulated forces transferred from the airframe and gear drag to the stick or yoke when the aircraft's nose and main landing gear is raised or lowered (cycled). In fixed-gear aircraft this effect won't be felt because, by definition, the landing gear doesn't move. Different aircraft have different gear geometries that result in each of the gear mechanisms starting and ending its cycle at a different time. The timing deltas are brief, typically less than a second between the time that each gear starts and ends its cycle.

Ground bumps parameters

These parameters collectively define a composite force that simulates the forces felt through an aircraft's ground steering controls as the aircraft travels over an uneven surface. The parameters are divided into two subgroups (numbered 1 and 2), and define the behavior of two distinct forces. The combination of the two forces define a composite force that is transferred to the stick or yoke. The two forces are both sinusoidal periodic forces, with frequencies determined by the following linear equation:

The ground_bumps_magnitude parameters set the magnitude of the force. The ground_bumps_angle parameters set the direction from which the force is felt.

Crash parameters

These parameters define the simulated forces felt in the stick or yoke when the aircraft crashes. The parameters are divided into two subgroups (numbered 1 and 2), and define the behavior of two distinct crash-induced forces. The first force is a constant force that lasts for 0.5 seconds. After 0.5 seconds, it stops and the second force starts. The second force is a periodic square wave force; its amplitude declines linearly to 0.

Property Description Examples
gear_bump_nose_magnitude Integer from 0 - 10000. Mooney Bravo( gear_bump_nose_magnitude=3000 )
gear_bump_nose_direction Integer from 0 - 35999 degrees. Mooney Bravo( gear_bump_nose_direction=18000 )
gear_bump_nose_duration Integer, microseconds. Mooney Bravo( gear_bump_nose_duration=250000 )
gear_bump_left_magnitude Integer from 0 - 10000. Mooney Bravo( gear_bump_left_magnitude=2700 )
gear_bump_left_direction Integer from 0 - 35999 degrees. Mooney Bravo( gear_bump_left_direction=35500 )
Beech Baron 58( gear_bump_left_direction=9000 )
gear_bump_left_duration Integer, microseconds. Mooney Bravo( gear_bump_left_duration=250000 )
gear_bump_right_magnitude Integer from 0 - 10000. Mooney Bravo( gear_bump_right_magnitude=2700 )
gear_bump_right_direction Integer from 0 - 35999 degrees. Mooney Bravo( gear_bump_right_direction=00500 )
Beech Baron 58( gear_bump_right_direction=27000 )
gear_bump_right_duration Integer, microseconds. Mooney Bravo( gear_bump_right_duration=250000 )
ground_bumps_magnitude1 Integer from 0 - 10000. Mooney Bravo( ground_bumps_magnitude1=1300 )
ground_bumps_angle1 Integer from 0 - 35999 degrees. Mooney Bravo( ground_bumps_angle1=8900 )
ground_bumps_intercept1 Floating point number, from 0 to 1,000,000 cycles per second. Mooney Bravo( ground_bumps_intercept1=3.0 )
ground_bumps_slope1 Floating point number, from 0 to 1,000,000 cycles per second. Mooney Bravo( ground_bumps_slope1=0.20 )
ground_bumps_magnitude2 Integer from 0 - 10000. Mooney Bravo( ground_bumps_magnitude2=200 )
ground_bumps_angle2 0 - 35999 degrees. Mooney Bravo( ground_bumps_angle2=09100 )
ground_bumps_intercept2 Floating point number, from 0 to 1,000,000 cycles per second. Bombardier CRJ 700( ground_bumps_intercept2 =1.075 )
ground_bumps_slope2 Floating point number, from 0 to 1,000,000 cycles per second. Mooney Bravo( ground_bumps_slope2=0.035 )
crash_magnitude1 Sets the magnitude of the first force, from 0 to 10000. Mooney Bravo( crash_magnitude1=10000 )
crash_direction1 Sets the direction from which first force is felt, from 0 to 35999. Mooney Bravo( crash_direction1=01000 )
crash_magnitude2 Sets the initial magnitude of the second force, from 0 to 10000. Mooney Bravo( crash_magnitude2=10000 )
crash_direction2 Sets the direction from which the second force is felt, from 0 to 35999. Mooney Bravo( crash_direction2=9000 )
crash_period2 Determines the frequency (frequency = 1/period) of the second crash force, in microseconds. Mooney Bravo( crash_period2=75000 )
crash_duration2 Sets the amount of time that the second crash force is felt, in microseconds. Mooney Bravo( crash_duration2=2500000 )
stick_shaker_magnitude Integer from 0 - 10000. Beech Baron 58( stick_shaker_magnitude=5000 )
stick_shaker_direction Integer from 0 - 35999 degrees. Beech Baron 58( stick_shaker_direction=0 )
stick_shaker_period In microseconds. Beech Baron 58( stick_shaker_period=111111 )

[stall_warning]

This section defines the stall warning system of the aircraft.

Property Description Examples
type This flag determines the type of stall warning system, one of:
0 = None
1 = Suction
2 = Electric
Mooney Bravo( type=2 )
stick_shaker Set to 1 if the aircraft has a stick shaker. Mooney Bravo( stick_shaker=0 )

[deice_system]

This section defines the deice system of the aircraft.

Property Description Examples
structural_deice_type Type of deicer, of one:
0 = None
1 = Heated Leading Edge
2 = Bleed Air Boots
3 = Eng Pump Boots.
Beech Baron 58( structural_deice_type=3 )
Beech King Air 350( structural_deice_type=2 )

[piston_engine]

A piston engine's power can be determined through a series of equations that represent the Otto cycle of a four-stroke piston engine, multiplied by the number of pistons available. This section contains all the information needed to be able to determine how much power the engines are capable of producing. Power can also be scaled from the calculated values generated for piston engines with the "power_scalar" property.

Property Description Examples
detonation_onset The manifold pressure that if reached or exceeded will lead to the engine detonating.  
supercharged On/off.  
supercharger_boost Multiplier on manifold pressure if supercharger is engaged..  
supercharger_power_cost Percent of horsepower required to drive supercharger.  
emergency_boost_duration Emergency boost duration in seconds. The emergency boost system was designed to model the systems used on WWII aircraft. The nitrous and supercharging systems are available for more modern aircraft.  
max_rpm_mechanical_efficiency_scalar Scalar value that can be modified to tune the mechanical efficiency of the engine at maximum rpm. Increase this value to increase the mechanical efficiency, decrease it to decrease the mechanical efficiency. Beech Baron 58( max_rpm_mechanical_efficiency_scalar= 1.0 )
idle_rpm_mechanical_efficiency_scalar Scalar value that can be modified to tune the mechanical efficiency of the engine at idle rpm. Increase this value to increase the mechanical efficiency, decrease it to decrease the mechanical efficiency. Beech Baron 58( idle_rpm_mechanical_efficiency_scalar= 1.0 )
max_rpm_friction_scalar Scalar value that can be modified to tune the internal friction of the engine at maximum rpm. Increase this value to increase the friction, decrease it to decrease the friction. Mooney Bravo( max_rpm_friction_scalar=1.000 )
idle_rpm_friction_scalar Scalar value that can be modified to tune the internal friction of the engine at idle rpm. Increase this value to increase the friction, decrease it to decrease the friction, (can be used to tune the rpm at which the engine idles). Mooney Bravo( idle_rpm_friction_scalar=1.000 )
cylinder_displacement Cubic inches per cylinder displacement. Beech Baron 58( cylinder_displacement= 91.7 )
DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( cylinder_displacement= 109.4 )
two_stroke_cycle Two stroke engine.  
compression_ratio Compression ratio of each cylinder. Beech Baron 58( compression_ratio= 8.0 )
DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( compression_ratio= 6.0 )
number_of_cylinders Integer value; number of cylinders in the engine. Beech Baron 58( number_of_cylinders= 6 )
DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( number_of_cylinders=9 )
max_rated_rpm Maximum rated revolutions per minute (RPM) of the engine (red line). Beech Baron 58( max_rated_rpm= 2700.0 )
DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( max_rated_rpm= 2300 )
max_rated_hp Maximum rated brake horsepower output of the engine. Beech Baron 58( max_rated_hp= 300.0 )
DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( max_rated_hp= 450 )
fuel_metering_type Integer value indicating the fuel metering type, one of:
0 = Fuel Injected
1 = Gravity Carburetor,
2 = Aerobatic Carburetor.
Beech Baron 58( fuel_metering_type= 0 )
DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( fuel_metering_type = 1 )
cooling_type Integer value indicating the method of engine cooling, one of:
0 = air cooled
1 = liquid cooled.
Beech Baron 58( cooling_type= 0 )
normalized_starter_torque This value can be modified to increase/decrease the torque supplied by the starter to get the prop turning. Increase this value for a greater torque effect, decrease it for a lower torque setting. Beech Baron 58( normalized_starter_torque= 0.3 )
turbocharged Boolean to indicate if the engine is turbocharged; 0 = FALSE, 1 = TRUE. DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( turbocharged= 1 )
max_design_mp If a turbocharger is present, this value indicates the maximum design manifold pressure supplied by the turbocharger (inHg). Beech Baron 58( max_design_mp= 0.0 )
DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( max_design_mp= 36.5 )
min_design_mp If a turbocharger is present, this value indicates the minimum design manifold pressure of the turbocharger (inHg). Beech Baron 58( min_design_mp= 1.0 )
DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( min_design_mp= 10 )
critical_altitude Altitude to which the turbocharger, if present, will provide the maximum design manifold pressure (feet). Beech Baron 58( critical_altitude= 0.0 )
DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( critical_altitude= 5000 )
emergency_boost_type Integer value indicating the emergency boost type available, one of:
0 = None
1 = Water Injection
2 = Methanol/Water Injection
3 = War Emergency Power, (typically used in WWII combat aircraft).
Mooney Bravo( emergency_boost_type= 0 )
emergency_boost_mp_offset Additional manifold pressure supplied by emergency boost, if available. Mooney Bravo( emergency_boost_mp_offset= 0.000 )
emergency_boost_gain_offset Multiplier on manifold pressure due to emergency boost. Mooney Bravo( emergency_boost_gain_offset= 0.000 )
fuel_air_auto_mixture Boolean to indicate if automatic fuel-to-air mixture is available; 0 = FALSE, 1 = TRUE. Mooney Bravo( fuel_air_auto_mixture= 0 )
auto_ignition Boolean to indicate if automatic ignition is available; 0 = FALSE, 1 = TRUE. Mooney Bravo( auto_ignition= 0 )
power_scalar Changing this value affects the amount of power delivered by the engine to the propeller shaft. Beech Baron 58( power_scalar = 1.0 )
bestpowerspecificfuelconsumption Specific fuel consumption at Best Power mixture ratio.  
magneto_order_left_right_both Sets the order of the magneto switch direction. Piper J3 Cub( magneto_order_left_right_both = 1 )
number_of_magnetos Number of magnetos.  

[propeller]

The thrust generated by a given propeller is a function of the power delivered through the propeller shaft, rpm, blade angle, airplane speed, and ambient density.

Property Description Examples
propeller_type Integer that identifies what type of propeller is on the aircraft, one of:
0 = Constant Speed
1 = Fixed Pitch.
Beech Baron 58( propeller_type= 0 )
Beech King Air 350( propeller_type = 0 )
propeller_diameter Diameter of propeller blades, tip to tip, in feet. Beech Baron 58( propeller_diameter= 6.4 )
Beech King Air 350( propeller_diameter = 8.8 )
propeller_blades Integer value indicating the number of blades on the propeller (2, 3 or 4). Beech Baron 58( propeller_blades= 3 )
Beech King Air 350( propeller_blades = 4 )
propeller_moi Propeller moment of inertia, (slug ft2). Beech Baron 58( propeller_moi= 6.9 )
Beech King Air 350( propeller_moi = 24 )
beta_max Maximum blade pitch angle for constant speed prop (degrees). (Not used if fixed pitch.). Beech Baron 58( beta_max= 45.0 )
Beech King Air 350( beta_max = 45 )
DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( beta_max= 24.0 )
beta_min Minimum blade pitch angle for constant speed prop (degrees). (Not used if fixed pitch.). Beech Baron 58( beta_min= 15.2 )
Beech King Air 350( beta_min = 15.2 )
min_gov_rpm The minimum rpm controlled by the governor for a constant speed prop. Beech Baron 58( min_gov_rpm= 1100.0 )
Beech King Air 350( min_gov_rpm = 25520 )
DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( min_gov_rpm= 800 )
prop_tc Time constant for prop. Beech Baron 58( prop_tc= 0.1 )
Beech King Air 350( prop_tc = 0.004 )
gear_reduction_ratio The reduction ratio from the engine output rpm to prop rpm. Beech Baron 58( gear_reduction_ratio= 1.0 )
Beech King Air 350( gear_reduction_ratio = 17.6 )
fixed_pitch_beta Blade pitch angle for fixed pitch prop (degrees). (Not used if constant speed.). Beech Baron 58( fixed_pitch_beta= 0.0 )
Beech King Air 350( fixed_pitch_beta = 0 )
low_speed_theory_limit The speed at which low-speed propeller theory gets blended into the high speed propeller theory, (feet/second). Beech Baron 58( low_speed_theory_limit= 80.0 )
Beech King Air 350( low_speed_theory_limit = 80 )
low_speed_theory_scalar This scalar can be used to adjust the thrust calculated using the low-speed propeller theory. low_speed_theory_scalar= 1.8
prop_sync_available Boolean to indicate if propeller-sync is available (twin engine aircraft); 0 = FALSE, 1 = TRUE. Beech Baron 58( prop_sync_available= 1 )
Beech King Air 350( prop_sync_available = 1 )
prop_deice_available Boolean to indicate if propeller de-icing is available; 0 = FALSE, 1 = TRUE. Beech Baron 58( prop_deice_available= 1 )
Beech King Air 350( prop_deice_available = 1 )
prop_feathering_available Boolean to indicate if prop feathering is available (constant speed prop only); 0 = FALSE, 1 = TRUE. Beech Baron 58( prop_feathering_available= 1 )
prop_auto_feathering_available Boolean to indicate if prop auto-feathering is available (constant speed prop only); 0 = FALSE, 1 = TRUE. Beech King Air 350( prop_auto_feathering_available= 1 )
min_rpm_for_feather Minimum rpm at which the prop will feather (if feathering is available). Beech Baron 58( min_rpm_for_feather= 700.0 )
Beech King Air 350( min_rpm_for_feather = 700 )
beta_feather Propeller pitch angle when feathered (degrees). Beech Baron 58( beta_feather= 82.5 )
Beech King Air 350( beta_feather = 79.3 )
power_absorbed_cf Coefficient of friction power absorbed by propeller. Beech Baron 58( power_absorbed_cf= 0.9 )
Beech King Air 350( power_absorbed_cf = 0.9 )
defeathering_accumulators_available Boolean to indicate if de-feathering accumulators are available; 0 = FALSE, 1 = TRUE. Mooney Bravo( defeathering_accumulators_available= 0 )
prop_reverse_available Specifies the scalar on the calculated propeller reverser effect. A value of 0 will cause no reverse thrust to be available. A value of 1.0 will cause the theoretical normal thrust to be available. Other values will scale the normal calculated value accordingly. Beech King Air 350( prop_reverse_available = 1 )
minimum_on_ground_beta Minimum blade pitch angle when the aircraft is on the ground (degrees). Beech Baron 58( minimum_on_ground_beta= 0.0 )
Beech King Air 350( minimum_on_ground_beta = 1.0 )
minimum_reverse_beta Minimum blade pitch angle when the propeller is in reverse (degrees). Beech Baron 58( minimum_reverse_beta= 0.0 )
Beech King Air 350( minimum_reverse_beta = -14.0 )
thrust_scalar Parameter that scales the calculated thrust provided by the propeller. Beech Baron 58( thrust_scalar = 1.0 )
Beech King Air 350( thrust_scalar = 1.0 )
feathering_switches Boolean indicating if feathering switches are available. 0 = FALSE, 1 = TRUE. Feathering switches (as found on the Douglas DC3), allow the pilot to automatically feather the propeller via a switch, regardless of the propeller lever position.  
number_of_propellers The number of propellers driven per engine.  
engine_map Set of flags that allows the propellers to be driven by a different engine.  
propeller.0
to
propeller.1
This parameter allows for the propeller to be located at the specified offset (longitudinal, lateral and vertical) in feet from the engine that is driving it.  

[magneticcompass]

This section defines the magnetic compass characteristics of the aircraft.

Property Description Examples
compass.0 Set to 1 for a vertical compass (with no dip errors).  

[gpws]

This section specifies the details of the ground proximity warning system.

Property Description Examples
max_warning_height The height below which a warning is activated.  
sink_rate_fpm If an aircraft exceeds this rate of descent a warning is activated.  
excessive_sink_rate_fpm If an aircraft exceeds this rate of descent an urgent warning is activated.  
climbout_sink_rate_fpm If an aircraft starts to descend during takeoff, and exceeds this rate of descent, a warning is activated.  
flap_and_gear_sink_rate_fpm If an aircraft is landing, and exceeds this rate of descent without flaps or gear extended, a warning is activated.  

[cameraconfiguration]

This section shows the global camera configuration properties that can be set on a per object basis.

Property Description Examples
CenterOffsetXyz The global offset of the camera Origin in meters for all camera definitions with Origin type Center. This value will be overridden by the CenterOffsetXyz value of a Camera Definition if present. CenterOffsetXyz = ( 0.0, 1.5, 0.0 )

[cameradefinition.n]

This section shows the camera properties most used by aircraft. An aircraft can have multiple cameradefinition sections, which should be numbered from 0 to n. For a full definition of all the properties that can be set for a camera definition, refer to the Camera Configuration document. All of the properties described in that document can be used in an aircraft camera definition in an aircraft configuration file.

Property Examples
title DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( title = "Right Float" )
guid DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( Guid = {B0CA7E72-F3D9-F748-8BF5-108D197B2469} )
description DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( Description = "View from the aft end of the right float looking forward" )
origin Mooney Bravo( Origin = Virtual Cockpit )
snappbhadjust DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( SnapPbhAdjust = None )
snappbhreturn  
panpbhadjust DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( PanPbhAdjust = None )
panpbhreturn  
track  
showaxis Mooney Bravo( ShowAxis = FALSE )
allowzoom Mooney Bravo( AllowZoom = TRUE )
initialzoom DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( InitialZoom = .5 )
showweather  
initialxyz DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( InitialXyz = 1.5, .5, -3.9 )
initialpbh DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( InitialPbh = 0, 0, 0 )
xyzadjust  
category  
momentumeffect Mooney Bravo( MomentumEffect = TRUE )
clipmode  
zoompanscalar Mooney Bravo( ZoomPanScalar = 1.0 )
showlensflare Mooney Bravo( ShowLensFlare=FALSE )

[turboprop_engine]

The amount of power generated by an engine and the power required for a propeller to turn through the air determine the increase and decrease of the rpm.  A turboprop engine is really a combination of a turbine engine and a propeller.  The values in this section are included to modify values specific to the turboprop.

Property Description Examples
power_scalar Changing this value affects the amount of power delivered by the engine to the propeller shaft. Beech King Air 350( power_scalar = 1.0 )
maximum_torque Maximum shaft-torque available from the engine (ft-lbs). Beech King Air 350( maximum_torque = 3270 )
de Havilland Dash 8-100( maximum_torque = 7878 )
powerspecificfuelconsumption Brake power specific fuel consumption (turboprop only). Beech King Air 350 Paint1( PowerSpecificFuelConsumption = 0.55 )

[airspeed_indicators]

This section is used to define the characteristics of the airspeed indicators on the instrument panels.  The list of indicators should be listed in order: 0,1,2,…n.  These characteristics define the calibration between calibrated airspeed and indicated airspeed. 

Property Description Examples
airspeed_indicator.0
to
airspeed_indicator.n
The first parameter is a scalar on the calibrated airspeed, and the second is an offset in knots.  The offset is applied first, then the scalar.  The default value for the scalar is 1.0 and the default for the offset is 0.0, thus by default indicated airspeed is equal to calibrated airspeed. DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( airspeed_indicator.0 = 1, 0 )
Maule M7 260C( airspeed_indicator.0 = 1.3, -24.0 )

[pressurization]

This section defines the pressurization characteristics of the aircraft.

Property Description Examples
design_cabin_pressure    
max_pressure_differential    

[variometers]

This section defines the variometers characteristics of the aircraft.

Property Description Examples
variometer.0    

[yaw_string]

This section defines the yaw string characteristics of the aircraft.

Property Description Examples
yaw_string_available    

[water ballast system]

This section defines the water ballast system of the aircraft.

Property Description Examples
tank.0 Front Fuselage.  
tank.1 Rear Fuselage.  
tank.2 Left Outboard.  
tank.3 Left Inboard.  
tank.4 Right Inboard.  
tank.5 Right Outboard.  
numberofreleasevalves Number of release valves.  
dumprate Gallons per second.  

[smokesystem]

The section describes how to configure a smoke system for an aircraft. You can set multiple smoke points on an aircraft.

Property Description Examples
smoke.0
to
smoke.n
The position relative to datum reference point of the smoke emitter and the smoke effect file name.  

[folding_wings]

This section describes the folding wing characteristics of the aircraft. Note that these are folding wings used to store an aircraft more compactly when on the ground, or on deck, and not the variable sweep wings used on some supersonic aircraft. Variable sweep wings are not supported.

Property Description Examples
wing_fold_system_type One of:
0: None (the default)
1: Manual
2: Pneumatic
3: Electrical
4: Hydraulic
 
fold_rates Two values (for left and right), giving the percentage per second, to fully extend and retract.  

[anemometers]

This section describes the positions of the anemometers in the aircraft.

Property Description Examples
anemometer.0
to
anemometer.n
Position of the anemometer relative to datum reference point.  

[realismconstants]

This section describes some realism constraints, dealing in particular with early aircraft. The values entered are used to make an aircraft more stable.

Property Description Examples
rollmomentfrombeta Scalar and offset applied to the roll moment from beta.  
rollmomentfromailerons Scale and offset applied to the roll moment from the ailerons.  
pitchmomentzeroalpha Scale and offset applied to the zero angle of attack.  

[antidetonation system.n]

Property Description Examples
reservoir_size Gallons.  
flow_rate Gallons per minute.  
reservoir_position Position relative to datum reference point .  
max_mp_compensate Manifold pressure above which AntiDetonation system cannot compensate for. Units are inches of mercury.  

[nitrous system.n]

Property Description Examples
reservoir_size Gallons  
flow_rate Gallons per minute  
mp_boost Multiplier on manifold pressure  

[tailhook]

If a tailhook entry is made, it will override the attachpt_tailhook_pivot and attachpt_tailhook_hook entries for the aircraft, if these attach points exist.

Property Description Examples
tailhook_length Length of tailhook in feet.  
tailhook_position Tailhook pivot point relative to datum reference point.  
cable_force_adjust A scalar value applied to the arrestor cable forces acting upon the aircraft when hooked. cable_force_adjust = 1.0
cable_moment_adjust A scalar value applied to the arrestor cable moment of force acting upon the aircraft when hooked. cable_moment_adjust = 0.2

[launch_assistance]

If a launch_assistance entry is made, it will override the attachpt_Launch_Bar_Pivot and attachpt_Launch_Bar_Lug entries for the aircraft, if these attach points exist.

Property Description Examples
launch_bar_pivot Launch bar pivot point relative to datum reference point. launch_bar_pivot = 5.0, 0.0, -1.0
launch_bar_lug Launch bar lug point relative to datum reference point. launch_bar_lug = 5.0, 0.0, -4.5

[voicealerts]

Property Description Examples
lowfuelpct Three values: Low Fuel limit (percent), check above (1) or below (-1), and check every N seconds.  
overglimit High G limit, check above (1) or below (-1), and check every N seconds.  

Helicopter Specific Sections

The following sections are specific to helicopters only. The implementation of the Bell 206 helicopter is a legacy implementation that cannot be configured by changing data in the configuration file. The [helicopter] section is the only helicopter-specific section that is used by the Bell 206. Other helicopter models do use the data in the configuration file to determine their aerodynamic performance, and utilize all the following helicopter-specific sections.

[helicopter]

Property Description Examples
lift_aero_center The longitudinal position, in feet, from the datum of the helicopter that represents the vertical aerodynamic center.  
low_realism_stability_scale This scales the stability of the Bell 206B helicopter to make the aircraft easier to fly. It has no effect on the other helicopters. The stability factor is broken down into three components: pitch, bank, and yaw damping.
The stability factor is scaled according to the pitch, bank, and yaw values set. For example, increasing the first value (pitch) to 1.1 increases the pitch-damping factor by 10 percent. Increasing these values excessively will result in excessive damping, making it hard to control the helicopter.
The stability factor is scaled by the General Flight Model Realism slider in the Realism Settings dialog box. At the highest realism setting, it is scaled to 0% (no additional damping); at the minimum setting, it is scaled to 100 percent. Changes to the stability factor in the .cfg have their largest effect when the Realism Setting is set to minimum, and have no effect when Realism Setting is set to maximum.
 
reference_length The length of the helicopter, in feet. Robinson R22( reference_length = 21.58 )
reference_frontal_area The cross section area of the fuselage, in feet squared, as viewed from head on to the helicopter. Robinson R22( reference_frontal_area = 17.7 )
reference_side_area Total side area of the fuselage, in feet squared, as viewed from directly abeam of the helicopter. Robinson R22( reference_side_area = 44.5 )
side_aero_center The longitudinal position, in feet, from the datum of the helicopter that represents the lateral aerodynamic center. Robinson R22( side_aero_center = -12.5 )
right_trim_scalar Scalar on the effect of the trim that counters dissymmetry of lift.  The trim normally induces a roll moment to the right, but a negative value will create a left moment. Robinson R22( right_trim_scalar = 1.0 )
correlator_available This flag determines if a collective/throttle correlator is configured on the helicopter. Robinson R22( correlator_available = 1 )
governed_pct_rpm_ref Defines the percent rpm that the governor attempts to maintain.  1.0 = 100% of "rated" rpm, although a few percent above that is normal. Robinson R22( governed_pct_rpm_ref = 1.04 )
governor_pid Proportional – Integral – Derivative (PID) feedback controller that works to maintain the reference rpm.  The series of numbers are:
proportional controller constant
integral controller constant
derivative controller constant
max rpm error (where 1.0 = 100%) in which the integrator portion is active
max rpm error (where 1.0 = 100%) in which the derivative portion is active
Robinson R22( governor_pid = 0.4, 0, 0.1, 0, 0.2 )
rotor_brake_scalar Scalar on the effect of the rotor brake. Robinson R22( rotor_brake_scalar = 1.0 )
torque_scalar Scalar on the effect that the rotor has on the yawing moment of the helicopter. Robinson R22( torque_scalar = 1.0 )
cyclic_roll_control_scalar Scalar on the amount of roll control authority from lateral movement of the cyclic. Robinson R22( cyclic_roll_control_scalar =1.0 )
cyclic_pitch_control_scalar Scalar on the amount of pitch control authority from fore/aft movement of the cyclic. Robinson R22( cyclic_pitch_control_scalar =1.0 )
pedal_control_scalar Scalar on the amount of yaw control authority from movement of the anti-torque pedals. Robinson R22( pedal_control_scalar =1.0 )
collective_on_rotor_torque_scalar Scalar on the amount of torque exerted on the rotor system due to the collective pitch of the rotor blades.  Increasing this constant will result in the rotor rpm tending to decelerate more dramatically as collective is increased. Robinson R22( collective_on_rotor_torque_scalar = 1.0 )

[fuselage_aerodynamics]

Property Description Examples
drag_force_cf Coefficient of longitudinal drag. Robinson R22( drag_force_cf = 0.55 )
side_drag_force_cf Coefficient of lateral drag. Robinson R22( side_drag_force_cf = 10.0 )
pitch_damp_cf Pitch damping coefficient (resistance to pitch velocity). Robinson R22( pitch_damp_cf = -2.0 )
roll_damp_cf Roll damping coefficient (resistance to roll velocity). Robinson R22( roll_damp_cf = -2.0 )
yaw_damp_cf Yaw damping coefficient (resistance to yaw velocity). Robinson R22( yaw_damp_cf = -0.1 )
yaw_stability_cf Yaw stability coefficient. This is the weathervane effect. Robinson R22( yaw_stability_cf = 0.27 )

[mainrotor]

Property Description Examples
static_pitch_angle When the stick is centered, the pitch angle of the rotor disk, in degrees.  
static_bank_angle When the stick is centered, the bank angle of the rotor disk, in degrees.  
position Position relative to datum reference point. This position should be the center of the main rotor. Robinson R22( Position = -8.5, 0, 4.91 )
radius The radius of the rotor, in feet. Robinson R22( Radius = 12.583 )
max_disc_angle The maximum absolute deflection angle up or down, in degrees, that the rotor disc can move with the cyclic. Robinson R22( max_disc_angle = 5.0 )
ratedrpm The rated rpm value for the main rotor. Robinson R22( RatedRpm = 510 )
number_of_blades The number of blades in the rotor. Robinson R22( Number_of_blades = 2 )
weight_per_blade Approximate weight, in pounds, of each rotor blade. Robinson R22( Weight_per_blade = 26.0 )
weight_to_moi_factor The constant used in calculating the moment of inertia of the rotor disc. The MOI algorithm is a function of the number of blades, their weight, and this constant. Increasing this constant will increase the inertia of the disc. Robinson R22( Weight_to_moi_factor = 0.58 )
inflow_vel_reference The reference inflow velocity of the air mass moving through the rotor disc. Increasing this value will result in more thrust being generated. Robinson R22( inflow_vel_reference = 34.0 )

[secondaryrotor]

Property Description Examples
position Position relative to datum reference point. This position should be the center of the secondary rotor. Robinson R22( Position = -22.8, -0.74, 1.8 )
tailrotor This flag, if set to 1, configures the secondary rotor as a tail rotor, or anti-torque. Robinson R22( TailRotor = 1 )
radius The radius of the rotor, in feet. Robinson R22( Radius = 1.75 )

[sling.n]

There can be multiple sling positions on an aircraft, each with its own set of the following properties.

Property Description Examples
hoist_extend_rate Feet per second.  
hoist_retract_rate Feet per second.  
position Position relative to datum reference point.  
max_stretch Max stretch distance at ultimate load.  
damping_ratio 0 for no damping to 1.0 for critically damped.  
rated_load Characteristics tension of cable in pounds.  
ultimate_load Breaking force in pounds. This cannot exceed 10,000lb.  
tolerance_angle Angle, in degrees, used to determine lateral breaking force limit.  
auto_pickup_range Max Range, in feet, for auto-pickup.  
auto_pickup_max_speed Maximum speed (feet per second) for auto-pickup.  
hoist_payload_station Payload station in which the hoist will load in and out of. 1 is first station.  
hoist_door Door associated with hoist. Must be open for use.  

[turboshaft_engine]

A turboshaft engine on a helicopter is very similar to a turboprop engine on a fixed wing aircraft.

Property Description Examples
power_scalar Scalar on Turboprop power.  
maximum_torque Maximum torque available (ft-lbs).  
powerspecificfuelconsumption Brake power specific fuel consumption.